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What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

Despite all the benefits of these state-sponsored, tax-advantaged accounts, many people still don’t have them. What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts


The college-savings accounts known as 529 plans can be confusing. Parents know they have tax advantages. But what exactly are those advantages? What investment options make the most sense? Which expenses qualify and which don’t?

With so many questions, many parents don’t even bother. So to help clear away some of the fog, here are answers to common questions about 529 plans.

• What Are My Options?

What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

The 529 plans come in two basic varieties. The more common type is a 529 college savings plan, where parents, grandparents and others can invest money to be used for a beneficiary’s qualified education expenses. The less common type is a 529 prepaid-tuition program, which some states and a consortium of private colleges offer to allow parents, grandparents and others to prepay tuition at participating schools at a set price today. Some states offer both types of plans.



What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

Now Croudsourcing Contributions To Our Grandson’s College Savings Plan. Click Here To Contribute. (Enter the Ugift code: N94-65K) Tax Benefits May Apply. Consult Your Financial, Tax, Or Other Advisor To Learn More About How This May Apply To Your Specific Circumstances.

Contributions to 529 plans aren’t tax-deductible at the federal level. However, many states offer state income-tax deductions or credits. Your money grows tax-free, and withdrawals to pay for tuition and other qualified expenses are free from federal taxes and, in most cases, state income taxes.


What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

Now Croudsourcing Contributions To Our Grandson’s College Savings Plan. Click Here To Contribute. (Enter the Ugift code: N94-65K) Tax Benefits May Apply. Consult Your Financial, Tax, Or Other Advisor To Learn More About How This May Apply To Your Specific Circumstances.

These plans can be used to pay for a range of college expenses including tuition, room and board, books and computer equipment, and they can even be used to pay for up to $10,000 a year in K-12 tuition. There are several investment options, and a multitude of plans to choose from. You can also transfer money in an account to other beneficiaries. There are many plans that make it easy for people to invest even small amounts, and there are many low-cost direct-sold plans available (not sold through an adviser).

• Are There Downsides?

What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

Now Croudsourcing Contributions To Our Grandson’s College Savings Plan. Click Here To Contribute. (Enter the Ugift code: N94-65K)  Tax Benefits May Apply. Consult Your Financial, Tax, Or Other Advisor To Learn More About How This May Apply To Your Specific Circumstances.

There are more upsides than downsides, but one consideration is that you could face tax consequences and/or penalties for withdrawals that aren’t considered qualified expenses. Another consideration: Your child’s need-based financial aid for college could be reduced. (More on both of those issues below.)

Also, you won’t be able to buy individual stocks within a 529 plan, and while there are multiple investment options to choose from, you’ll still have less choice than if you were designing a portfolio on your own.

• Where Can The Money Be Used?

The money in 529 plans can be used at most colleges and universities in the U.S., for undergraduate and graduate degrees. You may even be able to use the funds to pay for certain eligible institutions outside the U.S., according to the College Savings Plans Network, a repository for 529-plan information.

• What Investment Options Are There?

There are many. People commonly choose a portfolio allocation that automatically becomes more conservative as the beneficiary approaches college age. Other options include 100% equity funds or fixed-income funds, balanced funds that maintain a set mix of stocks and bonds, and stable-value funds, designed to give priority to protection of your principal. Some states offer FDIC-insured bank options, including relatively high-yield savings accounts and bank certificates of deposit, to protect your principal.

You aren’t stuck with one particular investment, either. You can move some or all of your existing money in an account to another investment option twice each calendar year, or after making a beneficiary change. Additionally, you can select a different investment option anytime you contribute to the plan. You can also switch to a different state’s plan once in a 12-month period, though some states penalize such shifts out of their plans.

• Is There A Ceiling On How Much I Can Invest?

Each state sets its own aggregate contribution limit per beneficiary, which ranges from $235,000 to $542,000, according to; once an account hits those limits, no more contributions can be made, but earnings can continue to accumulate. While there are no annual contribution limits, you need to be mindful that contributions are considered gifts for federal tax purposes. In 2021, you can contribute $15,000 per donor, per recipient, free of federal gift taxes. You could also make a lump-sum tax-free 529 plan contribution of $75,000 and spread it out evenly over your tax returns for the next five years, an option some grandparents use as an estate-planning tool.

• How Do I Find A Plan?

You can compare state plans on the College Savings Plans Network site or at Always look at your state’s plan first, to see if there may be tax or other benefits specific to state residents that make it a more attractive option. There are also adviser-sold 529 plans for those who might want professional advice on how to invest, but these are often more expensive than a direct-sold plan.

Almost anyone can participate in a 529 plan. Parents, grandparents, other relatives or family friends can own an account or contribute to one. You can even set up a 529 for your own education expenses. A trust, corporation, nonprofit or government entity can also open an account in many states. A beneficiary needs to be a U.S. citizen or resident alien with a Social Security number or federal tax identification number.

• How Could A 529 Plan Have An Impact On Financial Aid?

While there could be an impact, experts say the benefits of saving for college through a 529 plan would likely outweigh the effects it could have on financial aid. Assets in accounts owned by a dependent student or one of his or her parents are considered parental assets for federal financial-aid purposes, and typically only 5.64% of the account is considered in the Fafsa (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) calculation each year.

This is more favorable than them being counted as student assets, according to Distributions under this ownership structure don’t reduce college financial-aid eligibility. Assets in accounts held by grandparents will have no impact on students’ Fafsa, but distributions will be counted as student income, which will affect aid.

• What Happens If You Don’t Use All The Funds Within The Plan?

Some parents worry about what would happen if their child doesn’t wind up going to college, or if the 529 money is needed for something else. The account owner maintains control of the assets regardless of how old the beneficiary is. This means the beneficiary can be changed at any time to another family member such as a sibling, stepchild, legally adopted child, niece or nephew, aunt or uncle—so there’s little concern about the money not being portable.

You also have the option to withdraw some or all of the money for something other than qualified education expenses. You may pay a penalty for that, however. Any earnings withdrawn (but not contribution amounts) would be subject to state and federal income tax plus a 10% federal tax penalty. There also may be fees or penalties charged by the plan.


The state-sponsored investment plans known as 529 plans get their name from Section 529 of the Internal Revenue Code. They are formally known as Qualified Tuition Programs.

Tax-advantaged: It means that money in a 529 grows (typically through their holdings of mutual funds) without federal income tax, and you don’t pay tax on withdrawals if used for qualified education expenses.

The two types of 529s are prepaid tuition plans (where you purchase future tuition at a locked-in price) and savings plans, where your money grows in the markets.

An account holder can open an account for any student or future student—known as the beneficiary. Parents and grandparents often own these accounts for the beneficiary, or contribute to ones set up by others.

A 529 is typically called an education-savings plan now, rather than college-savings plan, because the 2017 tax bill expanded the mandate to include tuition at a public, private, or religious elementary or secondary school.


Sources: College Savings Plans Network, Investment Company Institute

Updated: 6-13-2021

How To Use ‘529S’ For Wealth Transfer And School Costs. Your Questions, Answered.

Barron’s Retirement recently explored a strategy some financial advisors are recommending where clients use “529” education savings plans to transfer wealth to the next generation, and not just pay for college or private school.

Turns out, the savings vehicle has a number of features that can make it advantageous for gifts and minimizing taxes. Following up on our recent article, Barron’s Retirement has dug into reader questions about how to employ the unconventional strategy as well guidelines surrounding 529s’ use for educational purposes. Here are some answers:

How Is It Possible For A Couple To Contribute $150,000 To A 529 Plan In One Fell Swoop?

The law allows you to contribute up to $15,000 annually for each recipient. But there is a special provision that allows you to front-load five years’ worth of contributions in a single year, which amounts to $75,000. If both you and your spouse front-load your contributions, you can give $150,000 to an account benefiting a person.

And don’t forget there is no limit on how many 529 recipients you can donate to. If you want to help out six children or grandchildren in the same year, you can do it.

Can you still gift money to grandchildren after donating $15,000 to their 529 plan in a year.

If you max out your 529 contributions for an individual, you won’t be able to donate any more money to that person without exceeding the gift-tax exclusion. And if you front-load five years of 529 contributions, that means five years where you’ve already hit the gift-tax limit.

Can You Invest 529 Accounts In Bitcoin?

The plans are run by states, which generally permit only mainstream investments like mutual funds.

“I don’t think they ever will approve anything like (Bitcoin) anytime soon,” said Mark Struthers, a financial advisor near Minneapolis. “Most of these state plans are pretty choosy what they allow people to invest in.”

Can You Put Money In A 529 And Then Use It To Buy A Condo For A Child In College?

No. “It’s not a qualified educational expense,” says John Roessler, a certified public accountant and financial advisor for Kovitz, a Chicago-based firm.

However, Roessler and other experts believe it is OK to buy a condo and charge your child rent to live in it, and to pay that rent from a 529 plan. Struthers worked with a client in Duluth, Minn., who bought a home for a child at the University of Minnesota campus there. He even set up a limited liability corporation to own the house, and had the student pay rent to the corporation. The parent was careful to keep rent in line with other market rents.

Does It Matter Who Owns The 529 For Scholarship Eligibility Reasons?

It can. If parents own a 529 account, it counts in the formula for how much financial aid the student will receive. Accounts owned by grandparents don’t count. However, if a grandparent distributes money from a 529 to a student, that can affect financial aid.

The good news is there a big lag how quickly 529 distributions affect financial aid. Roessler said if grandparents wait until the January semester of the student’s sophomore year, and the student graduates in four years, 529 money shouldn’t affect financial aid.

Can A Trust Own A 529 Plan And Does This Have Advantages?

Typically they can own 529s, but you need to check the rules for your state. Andrew Hook, an estate attorney in Virginia Beach, Va., said trusts can make sense in situations where the grandparents don’t want control of a 529 to go to the parents if the grandparents should be disabled or die. It makes sense “if you don’t trust your children,” Hook said.

Can You Take Money Out Of 529 To Equal Any Scholarships And Give Them To Your Child?

Yes. You won’t owe the normal 10% penalty but you still need to pay taxes on any gains.

What Can A 529 Pay For When It Comes To Parents Who Are Home-Schooling Their Children?

Hook believes you’ll be OK if you use the 529 only to pay for qualified expenses like books or online educational subscriptions.

Do You Have To Stop Contributing When The Child Reaches A Certain Age Or Goes To College?

Nope. You can put money in a 529 for somebody of any age, including yourself.


Updated: 7-6-2021

What To Do With Leftover Money In A 529 Plan

If you saved more for college than you needed, here’s how to spend it without taking a big financial blow.

Even if you spend years socking away money in a tax-free 529 college savings plan, it may not be enough to cover four years of tuition and fees. But what if, at the end of your student’s college career, you find yourself with leftover funds?

It’s not as uncommon as you might expect. While there are no hard statistics, about 10 percent of families with 529s end up with money the beneficiary on the account didn’t need for school, according to Mark Kantrowitz, publisher and vice president of research at, a website that provides information on 529s and allows you to compare state-sponsored plans.

The number of people using 529s is growing. Total accounts hit a record 13.6 million in the first half of 2018, and assets totaled $329 billion, double the amount in 2010, according to the College Savings Plans Network, a coalition of state-run 529 plans.

There are a few circumstances that could cause you to wind up with excess funds. Of course, it could be because your kid didn’t attend college or dropped out of school. But it could also happen if your child won a scholarship, received a family inheritance, enlisted in the military, or went to a school that ended up being cheaper than you expected. Even qualifying for education-related tax credits could reduce the amount you thought was needed.

Having more savings than you thought you needed sounds like a good problem to have, but there can be financial consequences if you use the funds for something other than qualified education expenses. You’ll pay income tax on any gains in the account and a 10 percent penalty when you withdraw the money.

Fortunately, 529 accounts are very flexible. Funds can be used tax-free for many types of schooling, not just expenses at a four-year college. And there are a number of situations in which you can access the money without incurring penalties. There’s also no time limit on using the funds.

If you have a child graduating from college this spring and find yourself with leftover 529 funds, here are ways you can spend it and minimize the financial impact.

5 Things to Know About Leftover 529 Money

1. You still have time to spend it down. As long on it’s on qualified educational expenses and within the same calendar year as graduation, recent grads can still use the money. If you have school-related expenses that you paid out of pocket, you can make a withdrawal to cover those costs. In addition to tuition and fees, you can spend 529 money on books, supplies, living expenses, computers, and other equipment, as well as internet access.

2. You can give it to someone else. If the beneficiary on the 529 account didn’t use up the money, you can transfer it penalty-free to another qualifying family member. Family is generously defined to mean other children, parents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, stepparents, even first cousins. And, thanks to the 2017 Tax Cut and Jobs Act, you can also use the money on private school K-12 expenses. Or you can save the funds for a future grandchild.

3. You can save it for grad school. There is no time limit on using the funds, so if your child has career plans that require a higher level of education, whether it’s another degree or professional courses, you can use it in the future. You can use money in a 529 at any institution of higher education that receives financial aid. That includes community colleges; technical, art, or music schools; vocational and certificate programs; trade schools; and continuing-education courses. You can look up qualifying schools and programs here.

4. Check to see whether you qualify for a penalty-free withdrawal. There are several situations where leftover money is exempt from the 10 percent penalty. You’ll still owe taxes on the earnings portion of the withdrawal. But if you got scholarships during college, you can apply that amount to the balance in your 529 and get the 10 percent penalty waived. If the student or parents get an unexpected inheritance, that may also count. You can also escape the penalty if your child enlists in the military or enrolls in a military academy. If using the American Opportunity Tax Credit or Lifetime Learning Credit reduces your need for savings, that’s another situation that could qualify for a penalty-free withdrawal. There are also some unfortunate situations that fall into this category: If the beneficiary on the account dies or becomes disabled, there’s no penalty for taking the money.

5. You can take the money. If none of these strategies will help you, the tax bite might not be as big as you think if you take the money out. The withdrawal amount will be taxed at the beneficiary’s rate, which is likely to be relatively low if it’s your child. While any earnings on your investments are subject to income tax as well as the 10 percent penalty, your contributions will never be taxed or penalized because they were made with after-tax dollars.


Updated: 8-9-2021

How Do You Withdraw Money From ‘529’ Plans? (And Other Questions From Readers)

Many people use these college-savings plans. And they can be awfully confusing.

After we published an article recently about these education-savings accounts, readers swamped us with questions—about how to withdraw funds for college, the impact on financial aid and more. (The plans can also be used for some K-12 tuition, but we focus mainly on the college use.)

Here are answers to some of the most-common questions we received.

It Is Almost Time For My Beneficiary To Start College. What Do I Need To Know About Making Withdrawals?

First, make sure you’ll be using the money for qualified expenses, such as tuition, room and board, books and supplies, and computers. Expenses that don’t qualify include things like transportation, campus parking, cellphones, club fees or dues, or furnishing a dorm room, according to the College Savings Plans Network, a repository for 529 plan data.

A withdrawal can be requested several ways: online, by paper form or call center. The money can be sent directly as payment to the institution, or to the account owner or beneficiary as a reimbursement, says the CSPN’s Rachel Biar, who is also assistant state treasurer in Nebraska.

For tuition and on-campus room and board, the easiest thing to do is request that 529 money be sent directly to the college or university. But account owners can request reimbursements for eligible out-of-pocket expenses—say for the purchase of books or a computer—that they or the beneficiary incur.

The account owner has the responsibility to keep all purchase receipts for tax purposes. Plans won’t ask to see verification that you’re using the funds for a qualified expense, but the IRS might. Owners will want the receipts in case of a tax audit, Ms. Biar says.

Another important tax issue: It is essential to take a distribution within the same calendar year that you incurred the expense, says Indiana State Treasurer Kelly Mitchell.

If you pay out-of-pocket for a covered expense in October 2021 but don’t remember to reimburse yourself until February 2022, that distribution would be considered a nonqualified expense, she says. There could be state and federal tax consequences, and some plans may impose fees or penalties.

I own a 529 plan with my granddaughter as the beneficiary. What impact will the 529 have on her eligibility for financial aid? Would it be better if I just give her $10,000?

Gifts to a grandchild and distributions from a 529 owned by a grandparent both can reduce the amount of need-based financial aid a student receives, says Mark Kantrowitz, a college-planning and financial-aid expert. Each counts as income for the student.

However, as the rules now stand, starting on Jan. 1 of your granddaughter’s sophomore year, you can give her a cash gift or use a 529 distribution to pay qualified expenses for her and it won’t have an effect on her future eligibility for aid. Cash gifts and distributions are reportable as untaxed income for the grandchild on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or Fafsa.

But the Fafsa requires that you report the student’s income from two years earlier; so the soonest your Fafsa application could reflect that income would be two years later. Assuming she graduates in four years, there is no impact on aid eligibility, Mr. Kantrowitz says.

Another option, he says, could be to do a rollover from a grandparent-owned 529 plan to a parent-owned 529 plan after the Fafsa is filed. The parent then uses a qualified distribution to pay college costs.

This way, on the Fafsa, there’s no concern about the grandparent-owned funds affecting the student’s financial aid, Mr. Kantrowitz explains. One caveat is that the parent-owned 529 should be in the same state as the grandparent-owned 529. “This will avoid recapture of state tax breaks, since many states treat a rollover to an out-of-state 529 plan as a nonqualified distribution,” he says.

In the future, these workarounds might be unnecessary. Fafsa simplification is being phased in and, as part of that effort, a question pertaining to cash support is likely to be eliminated. This is where the untaxed income from these gifts and 529 distributions are reported, Mr. Kantrowitz says.

The simplification was originally supposed to go into effect with the 2023-24 Fafsa, which will be based on 2021 income. Recently, however, the Education Department said it would need additional time to fully implement the measures. This would mean the change affecting grandparents would be postponed until at least the 2024-25 Fafsa, which will use income from 2022, Mr. Kantrowitz says.

Can 529 Funds Be Used To Pay Loans?

The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019, also known as the Secure Act, permits some 529 funds to be used for qualified education loan repayment. This includes all federal and many private loans. A lifetime maximum of $10,000 in qualified student-loan repayments can be withdrawn for a beneficiary and $10,000 for each of the beneficiary’s siblings. This limit cannot be bypassed by having multiple plans for a beneficiary, Mr. Kantrowitz says. You’ll also need to be aware of how your federal-student-loan interest deduction will be reduced.

Parents who have federal Plus loans can also pay them down using 529 funds, subject to the same limits. To do this, the parent who holds the loan would need to be named the account beneficiary, instead of the student. A beneficiary can be changed at any time to another member of the beneficiary’s family.

There could also be state-tax implications to using 529 funds to repay education loans, so check your plan’s program description, also known as a plan disclosure statement or disclosure booklet, before heading down this path.

Can I Change The Beneficiary To A Nonfamily Member?

You can open a 529 account for a beneficiary who isn’t related to you as long as the person is a U.S. citizen or resident alien with a Social Security number or federal tax identification number.

However, if you change the beneficiary after opening the account, the new beneficiary should be a family member, says Michael Frerichs, Illinois state treasurer and chairman of the College Savings Plans Network.

A change to a nonfamily member would be treated as a nonqualified distribution, which could mean federal and state income taxes, as well as a 10% penalty on account earnings. That said, there is a broad definition of who qualifies as a family member, including children, siblings, parents, nieces, nephews, children-in-law, spouses and first cousins, he says.

What Happens To The 529 Funds If The Account Owner Dies?

Generally speaking, when you open an account, you have an option to name a successor owner, which is always a good idea, Mr. Frerichs says. If there is no successor owner, your plan’s program description will detail what contingencies might apply and what actions, if any, need to be taken.

“We encourage people to name a successor owner; that is the easiest thing,” he says. But even if they don’t, “people shouldn’t be worried that it’s going to revert to the state and the beneficiary won’t have any access,” he says.


Updated: 5-27-2022

Grandparents Can Give More To College 529 Plans After Rule Change

Outside contributions will no longer be penalized in financial aid decisions after Congress made tweaks that will go into effect for the 2024-25 school year.

Grandparents who want to help pay for grandkids’ college costs are getting more bang for their buck.

Recent changes to financial aid rules mean they’ll soon be able to contribute to 529 college savings plans that they own without penalizing their grandchild’s eligibility for federal money, a limitation that’s made some grandparents think twice before opening new accounts or adding to existing ones.

“The fear that a grandparent helping their grandchild by using their own 529 plan would interfere with them getting financial aid, that worry is gone now with the new rules,” said Stuart Siegel, president of college financial-aid service FAFSAssist.

The change is part of an overhaul of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, that students and their families fill out when applying for financial assistance.

Its length and complexity have been blamed for deterring people from even seeking aid, spurring Congress to streamline the process through the FAFSA Simplification Act.

Currently, money distributed to students from grandparent-owned 529 accounts effectively reduces the recipient’s eligibility for federal financial aid by 50% of the amount withdrawn for the student.

That’s because the current FAFSA asks students to report how much they receive from non-parent sources, and then adds half that gift to what’s known as the Expected Family Contribution.

That amount is then deducted from a student’s overall federal aid eligibility.

Simplified Form

That’s changing under the new rules, which take effect in the 2024-25 school year. Among the questions being removed from the simplified FAFSA is one about outside contributions.

Grandparents, as well as godparents, aunts, uncles and other non-parent family members, will be able to contribute as much as they want into their own 529 accounts without the student being required to report any funds that are later withdrawn.

State-run 529 plans are a popular way to pay for college because of their tax benefits: Participants don’t have to pay taxes on gains or withdrawals as long as the money is used for college or certain other education expenses.

They can also be used to defray K-12 costs or, since 2019, student loan repayments.

The total value of 529 plans reached a record $480 billion in the fourth quarter of 2021, up from $165 billion a decade ago, according to Federal Reserve data.

Some 37% of families with kids in college used 529 plans in 2020, with the average account holding $25,664.

Parents are the biggest contributors to 529 plans, but grandparents are often the second-largest. In North Carolina, 16% of accounts overseen by the state’s NC 529 Plan are owned by grandparents.

‘Big Deal’

“This is a big deal,” said Laura Morgan, a vice president at the College Foundation of North Carolina, a non-profit that administers the state’s 529 plan accounts. “The rising cost of education has made paying for college a family effort and this opens the door for more grandparents and other non-parents to own and manage 529 accounts.”

While many wealthy families either don’t apply or aren’t eligible for financial aid, the simplified FAFSA could be a boon to low- and middle-income students. The current form is so dense with questions about assets and income that many families never even bother to fill it out.

More than $3.7 billion of free money was left on the table last year by families eligible for aid, according to a recent study.

Richard Thigpen, who has two grandchildren in the sixth grade, is already preparing to help with their college. He’s saved about $10,000 for each in a 529 plan and looks forward to the change involving outside contributions taking effect.

“It’s been great,” he said. “This is something meaningful we can do.”


Updated: 5-5-2023

Your Child Picked A College! Tee Up Your 529 Plan


What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts


Making smart withdrawals from 529 college savings plans can be a lot harder than putting money into them.

This month kicked off with college decision day, the May 1 deadline for many high-school seniors to pick a school. It should also prompt parents to plan withdrawals from so-called 529 college-savings plans.

“There’s so much focus on putting dollars into 529 plans that people forget about taking the money out—and parents procrastinate because they’re busy,” says Mary Morris, chief executive of Virginia529, which recently held $86 billion for savers.

The 529 account is by far the most popular college-savings plan. Named after the tax-code provision authorizing them, these accounts allow savers to make contributions that can be invested and grow free of federal and state taxes.

(There’s no federal tax break on contributions, although many states offer tax breaks.) Withdrawals are tax-free when used to pay eligible education expenses.


What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts


Net assets in 529 plans were $388 billion at the end of 2022, more than double the total a decade earlier—even after withdrawals and 2022’s market losses.

Total accounts grew about 50% over the same period, to 15.1 million, according to Paul Curley, who tracks 529 data for ISS Market Intelligence.

For account owners ready to start withdrawing funds, there are details to know and traps to avoid. Above all, be sure to keep good records, especially for unusual expenses.

The Internal Revenue Service doesn’t seem to be policing aggressively, but if you get audited you need supporting materials.

In addition, recent legislation will soon allow rollovers of some unused 529-account funds into Roth IRAs.

For more information—say for K-12 withdrawals—see IRS Publication 970. Here are key points.

Eligible Schools

Virtually all accredited U.S. colleges and universities able to participate in federal student-aid programs can receive funds from 529 accounts. These funds can also be used at many trade schools, such as for culinary training. If in doubt, ask the school if it qualifies.

About 400 postsecondary schools located outside the U.S.—including colleges at Oxford and Cambridge in the U.K. and McGill in Canada—are eligible to receive 529 funds as well.

Expenses That Are—And Aren’t—Allowed

529 funds can be used to pay for tuition, fees, books, supplies and equipment, including a computer, software and internet access if they’re going to be used mainly for education. (No software for games in most cases.)

Withdrawals can also pay for room and board if the student is enrolled at least half time. Students living and eating off campus can use 529 funds for rent and grocery bills as well, up to limits that are often similar to the school’s charges for room and board.

529 funds typically can’t be used for transportation. However, special-needs students can use them for a broad array of expenses that could include transportation.

In addition, up to $10,000 of 529 funds can be used to pay student-loan debt for the named beneficiary (the student) and that person’s siblings or stepsiblings. This limit applies per individual.

So if Jane’s father decides to use $10,000 from her brother Sam’s 529 plan to pay down Jane’s student debt, then no other 529 funds can be used to pay her student debt.

Funds in 529 plans can be used for graduate as well as undergraduate expenses.

Making Payments

529 owners often pay expenses via direct transfer from the account to the school, but the plan can also send a payment to the owner or the student to reimburse expenses they pay. Don’t put off managing details like account links, as delays can occur.

IRS Reporting Of 529 Withdrawals

529 plans report payouts to the IRS on Form 1099-Q, and also send the form to a person affiliated with the account—either the owner or the beneficiary. Each payout is pro rata, and the 1099-Q will note what portion is principal and what is earnings.

Taxpayers don’t need to report 529 withdrawals on their tax returns as long as they’re tax-free.

Some 529 specialists advise taking payouts in the same tax year the expenses are incurred—so parents paying for a spring semester should withdraw 529 funds on or after Jan. 1. Others, including Ms. Morris of Virginia529, say this rule hasn’t been formally adopted by the IRS and can cause needless hassle.

Mark Kantrowitz, a college-savings specialist, says the IRS doesn’t want owners to leave funds in 529 accounts to grow tax-free for decades after education costs were incurred. “If the withdrawals are within a few months, that shouldn’t be a problem,” he adds.

Taxable Withdrawals

If a 529 payout is larger than total eligible expenses, then income tax plus a 10% penalty is often due on the earnings—but not the principal.

Say that John withdraws $30,000 from a 529 plan he funded for his son Matthew’s college costs, and the pro rata payout consists of $15,000 of principal and $15,000 of earnings. However, Matthew has only $25,000 eligible college expenses.

In that case, income tax and a 10% penalty would likely be owed on about $2,500, the earnings portion of the excess payout.

Exceptions to the 10% penalty can apply for scholarships and in other cases. Students who receive refunds of previously paid eligible 529 expenses—as happened when students left campus during the pandemic—can often recontribute them to a 529 account within 60 days and avoid taxes and penalties.

If there’s a taxable payout from a 529 plan, some states recapture tax breaks for contributions.

Combining 529 Withdrawals With Other Benefits

Tough questions often arise when a student qualifies for the American Opportunity Credit, tax-free scholarships and 529 withdrawals.

The Opportunity Credit provides a maximum tax reduction of $2,500 per student per year for four years of postsecondary education. For 2023, it fully phases out at $90,000 for most single filers and $180,000 for most joint filers.

For tax purposes, no double-dipping is allowed. Each dollar of qualified expenses can be used only once, whether it’s for the Opportunity Credit, a 529 withdrawal or a tax-free scholarship.

What’s the best strategy for coordinating benefits? The answer varies with circumstances, but Mr. Kantrowitz often recommends maximizing scholarships and the Opportunity Credit before using 529 withdrawals.


529 owners typically can switch the beneficiary on an account without tax consequences if it’s to a family member. This term is broadly defined and includes spouses and first cousins as well as descendants and siblings.

529 owners can also leave accounts to others at death. Unlike traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs and Health Savings Accounts, these accounts can exist in perpetuity, according to Mr. Curley.

Rollovers To A Roth IRA

Last year Congress changed the law to allow rollovers of 529 funds into Roth IRAs. The provision will let 529 beneficiaries transfer up to $35,000 over time from a 529 plan to a Roth IRA if the 529 has been open at least 15 years, among other requirements.

The change will provide an out for savers with excess 529 funds. Some 529 sponsors hope parents and others will be able to do rollovers that boost their own retirement savings.

This change takes effect in January 2024, so stay tuned for IRS guidance.





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Why Does Amazon Want To Hire Blockchain Experts For Its Ads Division?

Argentina’s Economy Is In A Technical Default (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain-Based Fractional Ownership Used To Sell High-End Art (#GotBitcoin?)

Portugal Tax Authority: Bitcoin Trading And Payments Are Tax-Free (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin ‘Failed Safe Haven Test’ After 7% Drop, Peter Schiff Gloats (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Dev Reveals Multisig UI Teaser For Hardware Wallets, Full Nodes (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Price: $10K Holds For Now As 50% Of CME Futures Set To Expire (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Realized Market Cap Hits $100 Billion For The First Time (#GotBitcoin?)

Stablecoins Begin To Look Beyond The Dollar (#GotBitcoin?)

Bank Of England Governor: Libra-Like Currency Could Replace US Dollar (#GotBitcoin?)

Binance Reveals ‘Venus’ — Its Own Project To Rival Facebook’s Libra (#GotBitcoin?)

The Real Benefits Of Blockchain Are Here. They’re Being Ignored (#GotBitcoin?)

CommBank Develops Blockchain Market To Boost Biodiversity (#GotBitcoin?)

SEC Approves Blockchain Tech Startup Securitize To Record Stock Transfers (#GotBitcoin?)

SegWit Creator Introduces New Language For Bitcoin Smart Contracts (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Earn Bitcoin Rewards For Postmates Purchases (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Price ‘Will Struggle’ In Big Financial Crisis, Says Investor (#GotBitcoin?)

Fidelity Charitable Received Over $100M In Crypto Donations Since 2015 (#GotBitcoin?)

Would Blockchain Better Protect User Data Than FaceApp? Experts Answer (#GotBitcoin?)

Just The Existence Of Bitcoin Impacts Monetary Policy (#GotBitcoin?)

What Are The Biggest Alleged Crypto Heists And How Much Was Stolen? (#GotBitcoin?)

IRS To Cryptocurrency Owners: Come Clean, Or Else!

Coinbase Accidentally Saves Unencrypted Passwords Of 3,420 Customers (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Is A ‘Chaos Hedge, Or Schmuck Insurance‘ (#GotBitcoin?)

Bakkt Announces September 23 Launch Of Futures And Custody

Coinbase CEO: Institutions Depositing $200-400M Into Crypto Per Week (#GotBitcoin?)

Researchers Find Monero Mining Malware That Hides From Task Manager (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Dusting Attack Affects Nearly 300,000 Addresses (#GotBitcoin?)

A Case For Bitcoin As Recession Hedge In A Diversified Investment Portfolio (#GotBitcoin?)

SEC Guidance Gives Ammo To Lawsuit Claiming XRP Is Unregistered Security (#GotBitcoin?)

15 Countries To Develop Crypto Transaction Tracking System: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

US Department Of Commerce Offering 6-Figure Salary To Crypto Expert (#GotBitcoin?)

Mastercard Is Building A Team To Develop Crypto, Wallet Projects (#GotBitcoin?)

Canadian Bitcoin Educator Scams The Scammer And Donates Proceeds (#GotBitcoin?)

Amazon Wants To Build A Blockchain For Ads, New Job Listing Shows (#GotBitcoin?)

Shield Bitcoin Wallets From Theft Via Time Delay (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockstream Launches Bitcoin Mining Farm With Fidelity As Early Customer (#GotBitcoin?)

Commerzbank Tests Blockchain Machine To Machine Payments With Daimler (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Historical Returns Look Very Attractive As Online Banks Lower Payouts On Savings Accounts (#GotBitcoin?)

Man Takes Bitcoin Miner Seller To Tribunal Over Electricity Bill And Wins (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Computing Power Sets Record As Over 100K New Miners Go Online (#GotBitcoin?)

Walmart Coin And Libra Perform Major Public Relations For Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Judge Says Buying Bitcoin Via Credit Card Not Necessarily A Cash Advance (#GotBitcoin?)

Poll: If You’re A Stockowner Or Crypto-Currency Holder. What Will You Do When The Recession Comes?

1 In 5 Crypto Holders Are Women, New Report Reveals (#GotBitcoin?)

Beating Bakkt, Ledgerx Is First To Launch ‘Physical’ Bitcoin Futures In Us (#GotBitcoin?)

Facebook Warns Investors That Libra Stablecoin May Never Launch (#GotBitcoin?)

Government Money Printing Is ‘Rocket Fuel’ For Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin-Friendly Square Cash App Stock Price Up 56% In 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

Safeway Shoppers Can Now Get Bitcoin Back As Change At 894 US Stores (#GotBitcoin?)

TD Ameritrade CEO: There’s ‘Heightened Interest Again’ With Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Venezuela Sets New Bitcoin Volume Record Thanks To 10,000,000% Inflation (#GotBitcoin?)

Newegg Adds Bitcoin Payment Option To 73 More Countries (#GotBitcoin?)

China’s Schizophrenic Relationship With Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

More Companies Build Products Around Crypto Hardware Wallets (#GotBitcoin?)

Bakkt Is Scheduled To Start Testing Its Bitcoin Futures Contracts Today (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Network Now 8 Times More Powerful Than It Was At $20K Price (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Exchange BitMEX Under Investigation By CFTC: Bloomberg (#GotBitcoin?)

“Bitcoin An ‘Unstoppable Force,” Says US Congressman At Crypto Hearing (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Network Is Moving $3 Billion Daily, Up 210% Since April (#GotBitcoin?)

Cryptocurrency Startups Get Partial Green Light From Washington

Fundstrat’s Tom Lee: Bitcoin Pullback Is Healthy, Fewer Searches Аre Good (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Lightning Nodes Are Snatching Funds From Bad Actors (#GotBitcoin?)

The Provident Bank Now Offers Deposit Services For Crypto-Related Entities (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Could Help Stop News Censorship From Space (#GotBitcoin?)

US Sanctions On Iran Crypto Mining — Inevitable Or Impossible? (#GotBitcoin?)

US Lawmaker Reintroduces ‘Safe Harbor’ Crypto Tax Bill In Congress (#GotBitcoin?)

EU Central Bank Won’t Add Bitcoin To Reserves — Says It’s Not A Currency (#GotBitcoin?)

The Miami Dolphins Now Accept Bitcoin And Litecoin Crypt-Currency Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

Trump Bashes Bitcoin And Alt-Right Is Mad As Hell (#GotBitcoin?)

Goldman Sachs Ramps Up Development Of New Secret Crypto Project (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain And AI Bond, Explained (#GotBitcoin?)

Grayscale Bitcoin Trust Outperformed Indexes In First Half Of 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

XRP Is The Worst Performing Major Crypto Of 2019 (GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Back Near $12K As BTC Shorters Lose $44 Million In One Morning (#GotBitcoin?)

As Deutsche Bank Axes 18K Jobs, Bitcoin Offers A ‘Plan ฿”: VanEck Exec (#GotBitcoin?)

Argentina Drives Global LocalBitcoins Volume To Highest Since November (#GotBitcoin?)

‘I Would Buy’ Bitcoin If Growth Continues — Investment Legend Mobius (#GotBitcoin?)

Lawmakers Push For New Bitcoin Rules (#GotBitcoin?)

Facebook’s Libra Is Bad For African Americans (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Firm Charity Announces Alliance To Support Feminine Health (#GotBitcoin?)

Canadian Startup Wants To Upgrade Millions Of ATMs To Sell Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Trump Says US ‘Should Match’ China’s Money Printing Game (#GotBitcoin?)

Casa Launches Lightning Node Mobile App For Bitcoin Newbies (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Rally Fuels Market In Crypto Derivatives (#GotBitcoin?)

World’s First Zero-Fiat ‘Bitcoin Bond’ Now Available On Bloomberg Terminal (#GotBitcoin?)

Buying Bitcoin Has Been Profitable 98.2% Of The Days Since Creation (#GotBitcoin?)

Another Crypto Exchange Receives License For Crypto Futures

From ‘Ponzi’ To ‘We’re Working On It’ — BIS Chief Reverses Stance On Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

These Are The Cities Googling ‘Bitcoin’ As Interest Hits 17-Month High (#GotBitcoin?)

Venezuelan Explains How Bitcoin Saves His Family (#GotBitcoin?)

Quantum Computing Vs. Blockchain: Impact On Cryptography

This Fund Is Riding Bitcoin To Top (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Surge Leaves Smaller Digital Currencies In The Dust (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Exchange Hits $1 Trillion In Trading Volume (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Breaks $200 Billion Market Cap For The First Time In 17 Months (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Make State Tax Payments In Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Religious Organizations Make Ideal Places To Mine Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Goldman Sacs And JP Morgan Chase Finally Concede To Crypto-Currencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Heading For Fifth Month Of Gains Despite Price Correction (#GotBitcoin?)

Breez Reveals Lightning-Powered Bitcoin Payments App For IPhone (#GotBitcoin?)

Big Four Auditing Firm PwC Releases Cryptocurrency Auditing Software (#GotBitcoin?)

Amazon-Owned Twitch Quietly Brings Back Bitcoin Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

JPMorgan Will Pilot ‘JPM Coin’ Stablecoin By End Of 2019: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

Is There A Big Short In Bitcoin? (#GotBitcoin?)

Coinbase Hit With Outage As Bitcoin Price Drops $1.8K In 15 Minutes

Samourai Wallet Releases Privacy-Enhancing CoinJoin Feature (#GotBitcoin?)

There Are Now More Than 5,000 Bitcoin ATMs Around The World (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Get Bitcoin Rewards When Booking At Hotels.Com (#GotBitcoin?)

North America’s Largest Solar Bitcoin Mining Farm Coming To California (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin On Track For Best Second Quarter Price Gain On Record (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Hash Rate Climbs To New Record High Boosting Network Security (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Exceeds 1Million Active Addresses While Coinbase Custodies $1.3B In Assets

Why Bitcoin’s Price Suddenly Surged Back $5K (#GotBitcoin?)

Zebpay Becomes First Exchange To Add Lightning Payments For All Users (#GotBitcoin?)

Coinbase’s New Customer Incentive: Interest Payments, With A Crypto Twist (#GotBitcoin?)

The Best Bitcoin Debit (Cashback) Cards Of 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

Real Estate Brokerages Now Accepting Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Ernst & Young Introduces Tax Tool For Reporting Cryptocurrencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Recession Is Looming, or Not. Here’s How To Know (#GotBitcoin?)

How Will Bitcoin Behave During A Recession? (#GotBitcoin?)

Many U.S. Financial Officers Think a Recession Will Hit Next Year (#GotBitcoin?)

Definite Signs of An Imminent Recession (#GotBitcoin?)

What A Recession Could Mean for Women’s Unemployment (#GotBitcoin?)

Investors Run Out of Options As Bitcoin, Stocks, Bonds, Oil Cave To Recession Fears (#GotBitcoin?)

Goldman Is Looking To Reduce “Marcus” Lending Goal On Credit (Recession) Caution (#GotBitcoin?)

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