Open 24/7/365

We Have A Life-Time Warranty /
Guarantee On All Products. (Includes Parts And Labor)

Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World’s Largest Ponzi Scheme

Greenwashing Is Increasingly Making ESG Moot. Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World’s Largest Ponzi Scheme


BlackRock CEO Larry Fink ($10Trillion AUM) Has Unchecked Influence In Financial Markets And Needs To Be Reined In

Shedding Some Light On The Murky World Of ESG Metrics

SEC Targets Greenwashers To Bring Law And Order To ESG

Green Finance Isn’t Going Where It’s Needed

Meanwhile,  Charlie Munger, Sam Zell And Elon Musk Speak Out On Blackrock’s ESG Movement

Real-estate investor Sam Zell said to CNBC a few years ago: “I didn’t know Larry Fink had been made God.”

When you’re 98 years old you can say things others can’t, so bravo to Charlie Munger for daring to speak an important but too muffled truth about today’s financial markets. We have a new bunch of emperors, and they’re the people who vote the shares in the index funds,” Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway partner said Wednesday. “I think the world of Larry Fink, but I’m not sure I want him to be my emperor.” Many CEOs no doubt privately agree.

* Musk Says ESG ‘An Outrageous Scam’!

Greenwashing Is Increasingly Making ESG Moot

Fossil fuel holdings, Russia’s war and revelations about who’s investing there are battering the strategy’s original meaning.

The concept behind ESG keeps getting harder to defend.

For years now, managers of big funds touting their supposed focus on the environment, social issues and corporate governance have been faulted for holding shares of fossil-fuel purveyors (including Exxon Mobil Corp. and Chevron Corp.), weapons manufacturers (like Raytheon Technologies Corp.) and mining companies (such as Newmont Corp.).

In fact, the largest ESG-focused exchange-traded fund—the $22.9 billion iShares ESG Aware MSCI USA ETF (ESGU)—has almost 3.1 percent of its assets invested in the oil and gas sector, the industry most responsible for the accelerating destruction of the planet’s atmosphere.

Criticisms of the ESG industry’s increasingly feckless profile have only grown louder since Vladimir Putin launched his war against Ukraine almost three weeks ago, killing thousands so far. Since then, it emerged that so-called ESG funds had at least $8.3 billion allocated to Russian government bonds and companies.

While the figure is small compared with the roughly $2.7 trillion devoted to ESG-related funds, the revelation has turbocharged skepticism about the merits of ESG investing.

Putin’s attack even prompted Ukraine’s former finance minister, Natalie Jaresko, to criticize ESG. She wrote in a March 3 column for the Financial Times that the Kremlin’s war raises questions for companies that have “vociferously professed the virtues of environmental, social and governance factors.”

This is “a moment of truth” for ESG, she said. By her read, the phenomenon of greenwashing has now morphed into “ESG-washing.”

“All too frequently, corporations and their executives engage in marketing or obfuscation of what they’re actually doing—what could more accurately be called ‘ESG-washing,’” Jaresko wrote. “Will this prove to be another case of looking the other way?” She called on companies to end their ties to Putin’s regime.

Since Russia invaded Ukraine on Feb. 24, a mass corporate exodus has accelerated, starting with BP Plc and quickly spreading to dozens of other global brands.

The unwinding has left companies wondering whether they’ll ever return and, more importantly for them, whether they’ll ever recoup the value of their abandoned businesses in a country that has almost overnight become the world’s most-sanctioned nation—and begun to nationalize those foreign assets.

Professors Elizabeth Demers, Jurian Hendrikse, Philip Joos and Baruch Lev (who recently retired from New York University’s Stern School of Business) pulled together a study questioning why companies were able to retain their high ESG scores after investing so heavily in Russia, a country long plagued by corruption.

Among their conclusions was that there is no statistical association between companies’ ESG scores and their response to the Russian invasion.

“If you’re an investor who has been picking stocks based on ESG scores under the assumption that your money is likely to be funding more socially responsible corporate behavior, particularly in periods of extreme crisis such as Russia’s invasion of a sovereign country, you should be very disappointed,” the professors wrote, adding to the chorus of doubters about the usefulness of ESG ratings.

They went on to say that Jaresko is fully justified for calling out companies for “not walking the talk of socially responsible corporate behavior.

Our evidence suggests that Russian-invested European firms that have higher overall ESG scores, and even those with higher ‘social’ scores, aren’t more likely to take meaningful action in response to Russia’s invasion of the Ukraine.”

So where does that leave ESG? It’s not clear that all this skepticism is having any impact as money keeps pouring into the sector. Last week, ESG-focused ETFs attracted $1.8 billion, the most since early February, even as the S&P 500 index dropped about 3%.

Proponents of ESG say that skeptics don’t understand how ESG is used in the investing process. It’s not about doing good with your money, per se: They contend it’s essentially a tool to help measure a company’s resilience to financially material ESG-related risks.

MSCI Inc., the leading provider of ESG scores, says on its website that the ratings aren’t “a general measure of corporate ‘goodness.’”

Updated: 12-22-2021

Why Green Stocks Are Slumping During An ESG Boom

Despite long-term growth prospects, there seems to be less enthusiasm for the sector, according to analysts.

Despite a drop in clean-energy stocks and intensifying concerns about widespread greenwashing, the market for investment products sold as being ESG-related had another record year by most yardsticks.

Issuance of sustainable loans and bonds, where proceeds are supposedly earmarked for environmental projects or to further a company’s social goals, exceeded $1.5 trillion, including about $505 billion of green bond sales; ESG-focused exchange-traded funds attracted almost $130 billion in 2021, up from $75 billion a year ago; and investment in early-stage climate tech companies approached $50 billion.

It also was a year of big fees for U.S. managers of sustainable funds, with revenue climbing to almost $1.8 billion from $1.1 billion in 2020, according to data compiled by researchers at Morningstar Inc.

But not everything went one way. The S&P Global Clean Energy Index, which includes companies like wind-energy giant Orsted AS, Spanish utility Iberdrola SA and Sunrun Inc., the largest U.S. residential-solar company, has declined 27% so far in 2021, after more than doubling in value last year.

The outlook for green stocks is challenging because of worries about rising interest rates tied to inflation, unpredictable U.S. politics and regulatory maneuvers like California’s decision to sharply lower subsidies and add new fees for home solar users, said Sophie Karp, an analyst at KeyBanc Capital Markets.

“Despite long-term growth prospects, there is waning enthusiasm for the sector,” she said.

Adeline Diab, head of ESG research for EMEA and the Asia-Pacific region at Bloomberg Intelligence, agreed. On Dec. 21, she wrote: “Despite mounting catalysts with the U.S. infrastructure plan and EU taxonomy requirements, the clean-energy sector may remain exposed to uncertainty linked to government support such as stimulus delays or incentives-cuts announcements, the most recent being in California.”

Shares of renewable energy stocks hit another speed bump this week when U.S. Senator Joe Manchin, a conservative Democrat from coal state West Virginia, shocked his own party by announcing his opposition to President Joe Biden’s economic plan, which includes a landmark investment in the fight against global warming.

Manchin, whose vote in an evenly-split Senate was needed in the face of universal Republican opposition to significant efforts to fight global warming, has undermined Biden’s bid to address the climate crisis.

Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World's Largest Ponzi Scheme

Even with the stock market slide, this year was still the first since the Paris climate agreement in late 2015 that more money went into green bonds than debt issued by oil, gas and coal companies.

And next year is shaping up to be bigger. Analysts at Morgan Stanley estimate that green bond issuance will approach $1 trillion in 2022, led by sales from the European Union.

Bank of America Corp., the biggest corporate issuer of U.S. bonds sold as being tied to environmental, social and governance factors, also is predicting another big year for global sales of the debt.

“Will ESG primary issuance market double again in 2022? We’re not making that prediction,” said Karen Fang, the bank’s global head of sustainable finance, in an interview last week. “But we do think it will grow very, very strongly given the momentum behind the global net-zero transition and investor demand.”

Updated: 1-23-2022

Why The Sustainable Investment Craze Is Flawed

The first in a series of Streetwise columns about the failed promise of funds guided by environmental, social and governance principles, known as ESG.

The financial industry has spotted an opportunity to make money by helping people feel good about themselves. Despite claims to the contrary, these investments don’t do much to make the world a better place.

ESG funds, as they are known, promise to invest in companies with better environmental, social and governance attributes, to save the planet, improve worker conditions or, in the case of the U.S. Vegan Climate ETF, prevent animals from being eaten.

Money has poured into ESG funds as noisy lobby groups push pension funds, university endowments and some central banks to shift their investments. The United Nations-supported Principles for Responsible Investment says signatories have $121 trillion of assets under management; even assuming lots of double-counting, that is most of the world’s managed money.

Over the next few weeks, Streetwise will explore the explosion of ESG investing and why I think it is mostly—but not completely—a waste of time. I will also offer up some solutions and discuss how to use your money to make a difference, while understanding the inevitable trade-offs.

ESG supporters can point to what look like successes: Their pressure has encouraged many companies to sell off dirty power plants, mines and, in the case of Anglo-Australian miner BHP, its oil business. It has even forced board changes at Exxon Mobil.

Sadly, selling off assets or shares by itself does nothing to save the planet, because someone else bought them. Just as much oil and coal is dug up and burned as before, under different ownership.

And there are plenty of people out there to buy the assets, because never before in history has there been so much private capital operating without the public reporting requirements brought by stock markets.

Rich people who want to make the world greener could make a difference, by buying and closing dirty businesses even when they are profitable. So far, though, this hasn’t happened in any significant way. The pitch from Wall Street fund managers is the exact opposite—that by going green investors can change the world and make more money, not less.

“A lot of [clients] only really get enthusiastic if they get comfortable that they are not sacrificing return,” says Valentijn van Nieuwenhuijzen, chief investment officer at fund manager NN IP, which is being bought by Goldman Sachs.

Someone has to take a loss somewhere if fossil fuels are going to be left in the ground rather than extracted and sold. ESG investors’ hope is that the losses will fall on other people. The problem is that less environmentally-minded investors buying those shares, oil wells or power plants are absolutely not going to shut them down unless they stop being profitable.

It might make sense for an investor or company to sell out of fossil fuels early if they think the retreat from coal and oil is inevitable—indeed, that was the pitch by the activist who took on Exxon—but that is simply to invest according to a political prediction, not a way to fight climate change.

Some of the biggest sources of fossil fuels are immune to shareholder pressure anyway. Much of the world’s oil is pumped by government-controlled companies, led by Saudi Arabia and Russia.

Exxon can be forced to change its approach, but the global supply of oil is still determined by OPEC, as President Biden’s appeal to the cartel to pump more to keep fuel prices down has demonstrated.

There are three big pro-ESG arguments, which sound reasonable, but have major flaws.

First, if companies treat the environment, workers, suppliers and customers better, it will be better for business. This could work where companies have missed something to boost profits, such as add solar panels on a sunny roof or create a better employee retention program.

Early ESG activists plucked the low-hanging fruit here, but management has become painfully aware of changing customer and employee expectations, so there is less opportunity ahead.

Adding costs to reduce a company’s carbon footprint, or paying staff more, should only help the stock price if it also raises revenue or reduces other costs, by say generating more loyalty from carbon-conscious consumers, lowering staff turnover or improving relations with regulators.

Otherwise profits can only be maintained by passing the higher costs through into higher prices, and—unless the firm has monopoly power—eventually customers who don’t care will go elsewhere. The alternative is to reduce profits, but ESG investors are almost universally against this.

The second ESG point is that by shunning stocks or bonds of dirty companies, and embracing those of clean companies, it will direct capital away from bad things and toward good ones. After all, a lower stock price or higher borrowing cost in the bond market should make it less attractive for dirty companies to expand, and vice versa for clean companies.

In practice, there has been a very weak link between the cost of capital and overall corporate investment for at least a couple of decades. Small changes in the cost of capital pale in comparison to the risk and return projections of a new project.

That is not to say there is no link. Tesla, with extremely expensive shares, has repeatedly taken advantage of its ability to issue new stock to invest in factories and research. The high prices early last year for clean-energy stocks might have encouraged similar corporate investment.

The flip side of course is that buying wildly overpriced shares isn’t a good way to make money, as losses of a third or more from this year’s peaks for clean-energy stocks shows. Shifting the cost of capital just might help save the planet, but after the short-term shift in valuations is over, it should lead to underperformance.

The third claim from some ESG investors is that they are just trying to make money, and that involves shunning firms that are taking unpriced risks with the environment, workers or customers. Since they call themselves “sustainable” or use “ESG integration,” funds doing this look very like the rest of the ESG industry.

The selection principle of the most popular ESG indexes, for instance, those from MSCI, involves identifying only risks that are financially material.

I would say, sure. If you think the government is going to, say, raise fuel taxes, don’t buy manufacturers of gas-guzzlers. If you think the government will impose more restrictions on coal plants, then coal generation will be an even less attractive investment.

Equally, if you think customers will be willing to pay more for brands that cut their carbon use, by all means bet on their shares. Just don’t fool yourself that you are making much difference to the world with your investment decision.

Red-blooded capitalists chase these profits just as much as any green-minded investor. There is no need to try to persuade capitalists to have a conscience; they will do what you want if you make it profitable via customer demands or government intervention (or, if we are lucky, new technology).

There is one way that ESG investing does, sort of, work. Shareholders can push companies to stop lobbying governments in favor of fossil fuels. Conceivably this might help push customers and governments to do the things that would really make a difference.

My big concern about ESG investing is that it distracts everyone from the work that really needs to be done. Rather than vainly try to direct the flow of money to the right causes, it is simpler and far more effective to tax or regulate the things we as a society agree are bad and subsidize the things we think are good. The wonder of capitalism is that the money will then flow by itself.


Updated: 1-27-2022

ESG Pioneer Whose Firm Rose To Top Now Sees ‘Disconcerting’ Boom

Dodson sold his stake in Parnassus four months ago, almost 40 years after he started the San Francisco-based asset manager.

Few people have benefited more from the boom in ESG investing than Jerome Dodson.

Almost four decades ago, Dodson founded Parnassus Investments — a little known firm outside of ESG circles — and watched it grow into the world’s largest money manager dedicated to environmental, social and governance factors. The 78-year-old retired in October after he and his family sold their stakes in the business.

Dodson lauds how ESG has over the years helped push corporations and investors alike to act on issues such as worker rights and environmental protections. But as more money piles into the strategy, many companies and investors are exaggerating their efforts and impacts, Dodson said.

The ESG bubble is “a little disconcerting,” Dodson said in an interview. “It’s good that more people are talking about ESG. But if you look at how some money managers determine if a company is socially responsible, it’s not very rigorous and they’re not really strict in their criteria. We have a lot of money coming in and they use ESG as a marketing tactic.”

Stronger regulations are needed to clamp down on so-called greenwashing and address underlying issues such as climate change, Dodson said. “ESG alone isn’t going to save the planet.”

To counteract overstated claims, Dodson said investors need to be more rigorous in their analysis of companies by pressing them for specifics on the actions they’re taking on ESG issues, and disregard answers that are too general.

Investors themselves should specify what standards they are using in their strategies, while regulators should require fund managers to provide more details about their ESG tactics, he said.

A deluge of money has flowed into ESG in the past several years, making it one of the hottest areas of investing. The enormous growth has prompted other current and former sustainability executives and academics to criticize ESG for having limited impact in tackling systemic environmental and societal issues.

Dodson echoes Matt Patsky, who runs Trillium Asset Management, one of the oldest ESG firms. He said last year that regulators’ efforts to rein in money managers’ ESG claims are the “best thing to happen to the industry in years.” Regulators in Europe are seen as being closer than their U.S. counterparts to rolling out ambitious rules aimed at stamping out greenwashing.

Dodson, who ran a small bank in the late 1970s where he created a savings account that helped finance solar-energy projects in San Francisco, was inspired early in his career by Benjamin Graham’s book “The Intelligent Investor,” which described how to invest in undervalued stocks. Dodson sought to pair that strategy with socially responsible investing and started Parnassus in 1984.

One of the funds he ran, which is now called Parnassus Mid Cap Growth, rose at an annual rate of 10.1% from the end of 1984 through April 2018, compared with the 11.2% return of the S&P 500, according to the firm.

Parnassus has steadily expanded, with assets increasing to $48 billion at the end of last year from $5.5 billion a decade earlier. The San Francisco-based firm prospered as the universe of ESG funds ballooned globally to about $4 trillion, according to data compiled by Morningstar Inc. In 2021, Parnassus attracted a record $4 billion of new money and generated $320 million of fees, more than any active manager of ESG funds, Morningstar said.

Dodson stepped down from running Parnassus in 2018 and became chairman. He continued to oversee one of the firm’s funds until the end of 2020. Four months ago, Dodson sold control of Parnassus to Affiliated Managers Group Inc. for about $600 million. Dodson and his family owned about 62% of Parnassus, and today Dodson is worth about $150 million, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index.

Parnassus plans to start filing shareholder resolutions that press companies to address ESG issues and is looking to hire someone to lead the effort, said company spokesman Joe Sinha.

It was something the firm hadn’t done under Dodson’s leadership because, Dodson said, they were too time-consuming. While Parnassus voted in favor of proposals filed by other investors, the fund preferred to raise issues directly with corporate executives in private meetings, Dodson said.

Dodson said he sold his stake in Parnassus to secure liquidity. He’s so far spent his time in retirement cycling daily around San Francisco’s Embarcadero waterfront, focusing on his charitable donations and monitoring investments. He said U.S. stocks are overvalued and expects them to fall about 20% from their January peak before recovering to “much more realistic valuations.”

Updated: 1-29-2022

Wall Street’s Green Push Exposes New Conflicts of Interest

Auditors, bond raters and others aim to profit by both judging and advising companies on their ESG scores.

The booming business of green finance is being led by an unlikely group of companies that sits at the heart of the financial system.

The giant firms that audit the books, rate the bonds, advise on proxy voting and categorize the world’s companies are spending billions to boost their climate-related operations. That could accelerate the shift away from fossil fuels but could also create a new set of conflicts of interest for industries that struggled to manage them in the past.

In the past two years, U.S. firms in the financial-services sector have spent more than $3.5 billion buying green-ratings companies and data providers, a review by The Wall Street Journal found. The Big Four audit firms are also moving into the environmental, social and governance, or ESG, arena. PricewaterhouseCoopers last year said ESG was a focus of its $12 billion investment plan.

When the United Nations last year asked the finance industry to back its plans to cut carbon emissions, many banks had to be cajoled into signing up. Financial-services firms eagerly jumped in, according to people involved in the effort.

These firms are betting on big profits as companies, responding to demands by regulators and investors, seek to reduce their carbon emissions and better disclose their ESG practices. The firms have bought up smaller companies to bolster their offerings.

The market for helping companies with corporate ESG reporting alone is worth an estimated $1.6 billion globally, and forecast to increase by 21% a year over the next six years, according to U.K.-based research firm Verdantix. “The growth rate across several areas of ESG professional services is very strong,” said Kim Knickle, a research director at Verdantix.

In many cases, firms that rate or evaluate companies on things like climate risk also sell services to help companies address these issues.

Many of the firms providing these ratings, such as credit raters and auditors, are already managing deep conflicts of interest because they are paid by the companies they judge. Conflicts of interest in the credit-ratings industry were one cause of the financial crisis, according to lawmakers.

One new set of potential conflicts springs from the widespread practice of selling ESG ratings alongside consulting and other services.

Institutional Shareholder Services, the nation’s biggest shareholder advisory firm, sells to investors its climate-risk ratings for thousands of companies. It also sells to those companies advice on how to increase those scores.

“Improve ESG Ratings,” the Rockville, Md.-based firm says in its pitch to the roughly 5,000 businesses it covers. “Stand out among companies that you compete with for capital.”

The financial-services firms’ multiple ESG services create clear potential conflicts of interest, according to Anant Sundaram, a finance professor at Dartmouth College’s Tuck School of Business. “They earn cash flows by selling their services…to the very firms they’re supposed to be unbiasedly scoring and ranking,” he said.

ISS’s general counsel, Steven Friedman, said the firm, owned by German stock exchange operator Deutsche Börse, has taken steps to address potential conflicts of interest in its ESG work, including a firewall separating its ratings and corporate-advisory units. “ISS does not and will not give preferential treatment to any corporate issuer,” Mr. Friedman added.

ESG raters typically get most of their income from investment firms, which package together top-scoring companies to create green-branded products that are sold to investors. That creates an incentive to hand out high ESG scores, said Hans Taparia, a business professor at New York University.

“If the raters were to be tough on companies, there wouldn’t be any products to create for investors,” Mr. Taparia said.

Fund-ratings firm Morningstar Inc. gives out performance awards that are available only to companies that pay it for an ESG assessment.

Morningstar’s Sustainalytics unit sells companies an “ESG Risk Rating License” for an undisclosed amount. “Showcase that you are rated by a world’s leading ESG Rating agency,” its website states. Only companies that buy the license are eligible to potentially get a “Top-Rated ESG Badge.”

Badge winners include Freehold Royalties Ltd. , a Canadian firm with a portfolio of oil-and-gas properties. The company isn’t top rated by everyone. It is classified as a “poor” ESG performer, with a score of 23 out of 100, by ratings-firm Refinitiv, owned by London Stock Exchange Group. A Freehold Royalties spokesman declined to comment.

A Sustainalytics spokeswoman said Freehold Royalties is rated a low ESG risk—and therefore scores well—because it earns most of its money from owning land on which oil and gas are produced, rather than from drilling wells.

She added that Sustainalytics views its management of potential conflicts of interest as “crucial to the independence and integrity” of its ratings.

Regulators are starting to look at potential conflicts of interest in the largely unregulated ESG sector. The International Organization of Securities Commissions, an umbrella group of finance watchdogs, last year highlighted the multiple services offered by many ESG-ratings firms.

It recommended its members, including the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, consider requiring ESG ratings and data firms to “identify, disclose and, to the extent possible, mitigate potential conflicts of interest.”

An SEC spokeswoman declined to comment.

Ratings firms are pushing back against potential new regulations. The “presence of any…potential conflicts does not necessitate regulation of ESG data,” Morningstar told IOSCO regulators last year.

Ratings giant Moody’s Corp. recommended to IOSCO that any new policies should allow firms to demonstrate how they address conflicts, “rather than construct narrow requirements.”

Moody’s, which last year paid $2 billion to buy climate and natural disaster analysis firm Risk Management Solutions Inc., sells ESG assessments of companies to investors. Moody’s also sells similar assessments to the companies themselves, saying it can help them “seize new opportunities for value creation” from climate-change.

Credit-ratings firms’ sales of ESG services create a further, troublesome, set of potential conflicts, according to Jeffrey Manns, a law professor at George Washington University.

Companies may feel pressured to buy ESG consulting services from a credit-rating firm to maintain a good relationship with that firm and safeguard their credit rating, he said.

Another risk is that credit-ratings firms may be more reluctant to downgrade companies that pay them big fees for credit ratings and, now, for ESG services, according to Mr. Manns. “Rating agencies have no interest in biting the hands that feed,” he said.

A Moody’s spokesman said the firm has safeguards to protect the independence and integrity of the credit ratings process. “Our credit ratings are not influenced by commercial considerations across any aspect of our business, including ESG,” the spokesman added.

Rival credit-ratings giant S&P Global Inc. has commercial interests in businesses that can affect companies’ ESG scores. It also issues such scores and sells ESG data reporting, auditing and risk-management services to companies.

S&P is part-owner of a San Francisco-based company called Xpansiv that runs the Aviation Carbon Exchange, a marketplace that allows airlines to buy and sell carbon credits. Airlines’s use of such credits to brand their operations as sustainable has been criticized by environmental groups, among others.

An S&P spokeswoman said the firm is committed to the independence and objectivity of its products and services. S&P has “controls in place to identify and manage actual, potential, or perceived conflicts of interests,” the spokeswoman added.

Updated: 2-2-2022

Many Big ESG Funds Are Just Glorified Market Trackers

And some of them perform even worse than the indexes.

In the recent market tumult, the largest ESG-focused exchange-traded funds in the U.S. are again showing that they are little more than market-trackers—with even worse performance.

The iShares ESG Aware MSCI USA (ticker ESGU), which claims to invest in U.S. companies with positive environmental, social and governance characteristics, has dropped 5.3% since the start of the year, slightly worse than the 4.6% decline of the S&P 500.

Seventeen of the $24.7 billion fund’s 20 largest holdings, led by technology stocks, are the same as those with the heaviest weightings in the benchmark U.S. index. The only differences are ESGU owns sizable stakes in PepsiCo Inc., Coca-Cola Co. and Cisco Systems Inc. as opposed to Berkshire Hathaway Inc., Exxon Mobil Corp. and Pfizer Inc.

An analysis of the Vanguard ESG U.S. Stock ETF (ticker ESGV) shows a similar focus on shares of tech companies. About 20.8% of ESGV’s assets are invested in four tech stocks—Apple Inc., Microsoft Corp., Inc. and Alphabet Inc. By comparison, the S&P 500’s weighting in the four leading U.S. technology companies is 20.6%.

Vanguard’s $6.2 billion ETF has fallen 6.5% since the start of the year, almost 2 percentage points more than the S&P 500.

The third biggest ESG-focused fund with ESG in its title is BlackRock Inc.’s iShares MSCI USA ESG Select Social Index ETF (ticker SUSA). The fund’s three top holdings are Apple, Microsoft and Alphabet and it has almost one-third of its $4.1 billion devoted to tech-related companies.

Of the three funds, ESGU is closest to a market-tracking fund based on the fund’s overall composition, said Shaheen Contractor, an analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence who writes about ESG-focused ETFs.

ESGV shouldn’t be graded against the S&P 500 since they hold a larger proportion of mid- and small-cap stocks, Contractor said. For ESGV, the appropriate benchmark is the Russell 3000, which has declined 5.2% since the start of the year—less than ESGV.

SUSA’s benchmark is the MSCI USA Index, which has fallen 5.7% since the end of December. The fund dropped 6.6% in the same period.

From an ESG standpoint, it does make some sense that managers of these funds gravitate to tech stocks. Companies like Apple, Microsoft and were among the earliest companies to announce plans to reduce their emissions to net zero by 2050.

Microsoft, for example, has received credit from analysts at BloombergNEF for setting targets that go beyond its own operations to address the company’s broader impact on climate and society.

Nevertheless, most investors in ESG ETFs likely would be more comfortable knowing that managers of their funds are focused on adhering to the best environmental, social and corporate governance principles, rather than simply looking for ways not to deviate too far from benchmark stock indexes.

Contractor said considering the level of ESG exposures and the fees charged helps identify reasonably priced ETFs. “ESGU stands out as a strategy that offers low levels of ESG exposure with relatively higher fees, making it an industry laggard,” she said.

Updated: 2-4-2022

Banks Get ESG Upgrades Despite Lending Billions For Fossil Fuels

Wells Fargo, Citigroup, Morgan Stanley received a boost in their green credentials from MSCI, even after providing $74 billion to polluting companies.

The world’s leading rater of green credentials is rewarding some of Wall Street’s biggest banks even though they continue to lend billions of dollars to fossil-fuel companies.

Those credentials come in the form of upgrades from MSCI Inc., which ranks corporations globally on environmental, social and governance criteria.

In the past two years, Wells Fargo & Co., Citigroup Inc. and Morgan Stanley were among banks that got an ESG headline-rating upgrade for environmental reasons, even though the three banks arranged a combined $74 billion of loans for fossil-fuel companies.

Climate change, racial inequality and the growing wealth gap have created huge demand for ESG data on global companies. Adjustments to ESG ratings, which investors use to trade shares in a booming market for sustainable investing, can affect the flows of money invested in a company’s stock.

Some $2.7 trillion now sits in sustainable funds, more than triple the amount from two years ago, according to research firm Morningstar Inc. That sum is expected to continue growing at a rapid pace.

Bloomberg News analyzed MSCI’s ESG rating upgrades given in the past two years to lenders in the S&P 500, a representative sample of companies in the world’s largest economy.

The analysis found that 13 of 22 banks got upgrades, and almost half of those were because MSCI analysts took into account a “more granular breakdown” of the banks’ loans — meaning which industries get their loans.

Only three of the 22 lenders got an ESG rating downgrade: Zion Bancorp, Signature Bank and M&T Bank Corp.

Rather than measuring the total sums loaned to high polluters, MSCI analysts focused on how much those loans accounted for in a bank’s lending portfolio.

For example, if a bank lent billions to an oil company but those loans represented a small part of its overall lending, MSCI would consider the bank to be greener — and worthy of a rating upgrade — compared with one that lent millions but whose loans accounted for a larger part of its overall portfolio.

Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World's Largest Ponzi Scheme

Analysts at MSCI found that six firms — Wells Fargo, Citigroup, Morgan Stanley, Truist Financial Corp., Regions Financial Corp. and U.S. Bancorp — had only a small proportion (about 10% or less) of their total lending going to polluting businesses such as oil, gas and power companies or miners.

What mattered more isn’t the total sum lent to these corporations, but the lending portfolio’s “environmental intensity,” which is how much environmental harm the firm could be on the hook for per dollar lent across its entire portfolio.

JPMorgan Chase & Co. was the only S&P 500 bank whose ESG rating upgrade in 2020 was driven largely by its green-lending practices. MSCI analysts noted that its green bond issuance in 2019 stood at levels “besting industry peers.”

Since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015, JPMorgan has underwritten more bonds for fossil-fuel companies than any U.S. bank. The company also ranks as the leading underwriter of green bonds in the same period among its domestic peers, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

MSCI, which markets its ratings as a way to “build better portfolios for a better world,” said its ratings are tied to “relevant ESG risks.” MSCI’s ESG ratings measure how government regulations, legal judgments or other factors will affect those companies’ bottom line, rather than the risks the companies’ activities might pose to the world — a fact revealed by a Bloomberg Businessweek investigation published in December.

In a statement, MSCI said its ESG ratings “are used by institutional investors to better understand a company’s exposure to financially relevant ESG risks, not to measure a company’s total climate impact — we have other tools and data for that purpose.

We are explicit about this investment management purpose and investors using our ratings understand and agree with our approach.”

But in a November interview responding to the Bloomberg investigation, MSCI Chief Executive Officer Henry Fernandez said even “many portfolio managers don’t totally grasp that.”

While the approach of considering risks to the company’s bottom line is an industrywide practice among ESG data providers, Bloomberg Intelligence estimates that 60% of all the money retail investors have plowed into sustainable or ESG funds globally has gone into ones built on MSCI’s ratings.

So changes to those ratings can have outsized impact compared with ESG scores from competitors such as Sustainalytics or Bloomberg LP. (Bloomberg LP, which owns Bloomberg News, also provides ESG data and scores; it has a partnership with MSCI to create ESG and other indexes for fixed-income investments.)

In response to this article, MSCI said it takes into consideration the reputational risks that lenders face tied to their absolute sums lent to fossil-fuel companies. But its in-depth reports don’t explain exactly how the assessment feeds into the ESG rating.

Consider the example of Wells Fargo. The bank was the largest lender to fossil-fuel companies during the past two years, helping arrange $41.5 billion of loans, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

MSCI analysts found that Wells Fargo is only “involved in moderate controversy” tied to its lending to polluting industries and that its decision-making process for “incorporation of environmental due diligence” is in “line with industry best practices.”

Officials at Wells Fargo declined to comment.

Apart from the six banks that got headline-rating upgrades driven by loan-portfolio analysis, five other lenders in the S&P 500 got ratings upgrades from MSCI without taking any meaningful action.

Instead, it was the result of MSCI changing how it calculates underlying scores of those lenders relative to peers. Those upgrades coincided with a spectacular run for the stock price of most Wall Street firms as global markets recovered thanks to economic stimulus from governments responding to the pandemic.

Updated: 2-22-2022

Italy’s Push To Create Greener Cities Led To $5 Billion In Fraud

Generous government incentives were snapped up by scammers and may have created a construction bubble.

Rome, Milan and cities across Italy have become clogged with scaffolding after real-estate owners rushed to tap generous government programs to fund energy-efficiency renovations.

The problem is many were scammers. Instead of paying for improved insulation, draft-free windows and cleaner boilers, part of the state support ended up funding investment in cryptocurrencies, gold and other assets, according to Italian officials.

Authorities suspect 4.4 billion euros ($5 billion) ended up in the hands of criminals in what Finance Minister Daniele Franco called “one of the biggest frauds in the history of the Italian republic.”

Even Prime Minister Mario Draghi lost his cool over the fiasco, raising his voice at a press conference earlier this month as he slammed the “system without checks” that was put in place by the previous administration.

The government is now trying to fix the problem by tightening rules, but the damage has been done and it may go well beyond fraud. The rush for funding led to a sudden surge in demand that risks further accelerating inflation, while a bust might be just around the corner as the government responds to misuse.

The issue shows how even well-intended programs can backfire if not properly managed. In a similar case, Germany angered homeowners earlier this year by abruptly pulling the plug on an energy-efficiency program after the money dried up.

Italy’s most generous program offered a tax break worth 110% of the investment for climate-friendly renovations, while others promoted upgrading roofs and facades as well as buying efficient gas heaters. Owners of more than 100,000 buildings tapped the 110% credit, the so-called superbonus, for a total of 20 billion euros, as of the end of January.

The problem was that the tax credit could be turned immediately into cash at banks and other financial institutions, then traded on indefinitely with no tracking. While the idea was meant to help people finance construction work straight away, conditions were too loose.

About 2.3 billion euros in illegally drawn tax credits have since been seized, according to Italian authorities. In one case, finance police in the resort town of Rimini claim a criminal structure used figureheads to trade in credits several times to obscure their trail for false claims totaling 440 million euros.

Aside from fraud, the program has created other issues. A clamor for construction capacity drove up prices for construction materials and equipment by five times in some cases. Ecological Transition Minister Roberto Cingolani intervened with a decree to cap prices for roofing materials and equipment, such as scaffolding and heaters.

The impact was so widespread that about 1% of Italy’s 6.5% growth in gross domestic product last year was due to the construction sector. But as with any boom, there’s risk of a bust.

“This system created a bubble which somehow doped the entire construction market,” said Fabrizio Mancini, head of Rome-based builder Olytecma Italia. “We’ve seen a proper gold rush.”

The government first intervened in January, banning the trading of tax credits after the first transfer, essentially blocking the system and prompting banks and intermediaries such as Poste Italiane SpA and Banco BPM SpA to stop accepting them.

That created an uproar. Confartigianato Cuneo, a lobby group for trade workers, complained the moves brought the industry to a “standstill” and warned of a 40% drop in sales for construction companies this year if the trading of tax credits remained suspended.

The government backed off. It again allowed banks to transfer tax credits, but added further checks to prevent fraud and clarified the status of sequestered credits. The decree is positive for banks as it reduces the risk of writedowns, broker Equita SIM said in a note. Banco BPM resumed operations on the tax credit, while Poste Italiane still hasn’t.

Mancini’s firm invested in scaffolding and vehicles and hired four new workers to keep up with demand. Now he’s afraid those investments might turn bad.

“In two to three years time, what will become of all of us?” said the 53-year-old.


Updated: 2-23-2022

ESG Debt Concerns Revealed By Watchdog Urging Rapid Fix

* Finance Sector Found To Use Inconsistent ESG Debt Valuations
* Global Accounting Rules Haven’t Kept Pace With ESG Innovation

The unfettered boom in ESG debt has created some accounting concerns that are in urgent need of regulatory attention, according to Europe’s markets watchdog.

Firms are booking the value of so-called sustainability-linked bonds and loans in inconsistent ways, the European Securities and Markets Authority has found. The development has the potential to “negatively affect the decision-making of financial market participants and thus the efficient functioning of capital markets,” ESMA told Bloomberg in an emailed response to questions.

Demand for such debt products has soared in recent years and Moody’s ESG Solutions expects the ESG bond market alone to hit about $1.4 trillion in 2022, as issuers try to tap into seemingly insatiable demand for ethical investments.

But accounting rules for determining their asset and liability values aren’t keeping pace with the market boom, leaving firms to apply varying valuation models.

ESMA says it’s concerned that existing plans by the International Accounting Standards Board to regulate the market are moving too slowly, and is now calling on IASB to treat the valuation of ESG debt as a matter of urgency. The board should set specific guidelines for valuing instruments whose interest rates change based on environmental or social targets, according to ESMA.

The IASB says it’s reviewing the rule known as IFRS 9, which determines how financial assets are valued, and is going over the feedback it’s received on accounting for ESG elements in loans, bonds and structured instruments.

The board says that review includes a closer look at “market changes since the accounting standard was issued” back in 2018, “and how responsive the accounting standard has been to those market changes,” a spokesperson said.

“In that context, many stakeholders have provided information about the development of loans with interest rates that vary depending on whether the borrower meets pre-determined ESG targets.”

But that review process — and any potential action based on its findings — is in danger of being too slow, according to bankers, businesses and regulators.

Differing Models For Valuing ESG Debt…

Most banks want IASB to adopt a standard that’s based on valuing an asset at a so-called amortized cost. They say that using fair value, which is the model preferred by accountants, risks making profit and loss statements more volatile.

That could ultimately discourage a bank from “promoting sustainable financing,” Dominique Crowe, head of group accounting policy at UBS, said in a Jan. 27 letter to the IASB. Her comments were echoed by BNP Paribas.

The lack of uniformity is also a concern for issuers. In a Jan. 28 letter, Shell International urged the IASB to “ensure consistency in the judgments made on debt instruments and other lending agreements with ESG-linked features.”

It’s not the first time that sustainability-linked debt, which carries an adjustable interest rate depending on whether key ESG performance indicators are met, has faced questions.

In September, Bloomberg published an analysis of over 70 sustainability-linked revolving credit lines and term loans arranged in the U.S. since 2018, which showed that more than a quarter contained no penalty for falling short of stated goals, and only a minuscule discount if targets are met.

When it comes to valuing sustainability-linked debt in financial accounts, Europe’s markets regulator isn’t alone in its concerns. Regulators, banks, pension funds and accountants from Brazil to Australia are calling on the IASB to acknowledge the need for swift action. The accounting issues don’t stop with banks, but also affect pension funds and other corners of the investment industry.

“As the volume of these financial assets is growing rapidly, we believe there is an urgent need for the Board to issue guidance as to how ESG features should be analyzed to determine whether financial instruments with these features meet the SPPI criterion,” KPMG IFRG Ltd said in Jan. 28 letter.

The issue is of particular concern for banks in Europe, where governments and regulators are moving faster than other jurisdictions to create a framework that channels capital toward environmentally and socially sustainable activities.

“Considering the pressure on banks to promote this type of instrument and the implications in the economics of the banking industry we consider that the review of this project should be given the utmost priority,” the European Banking Federation said in a Jan. 27 letter.

Europe’s top banking watchdog echoed the concern, and called for a broader review of ESG characteristics citing the potential impact on credit losses.

“This topic deserves a broader discussion and should not be limited to the accounting classification of financial assets,” the European Banking Authority said in a Jan. 25 letter to the IASB. “ESG risks impact the measurement of financial assets via the computation of expected credit losses and determination of fair value.”

As such, an overall assessment of how the classification criteria — and related measurement basis — would work in conjunction with expected credit losses and fair-value models “seems to be needed,” the EBA said.

Updated: 4-6-2022

Conservative Group Wants To Stop State Pensions From Pursuing ESG Initiatives

A proposed model bill from the influential right-leaning group ALEC would bar state pension funds from looking beyond returns in their investment decisions.

State pension funds should be barred from considering social and environmental factors in their investment decisions, a conservative association said in a push for new state legislation that would clash with the financial industry’s efforts to focus on greener investments.

American Legislative Exchange Council, an association of state legislators, on Wednesday put forward model legislation that provides states a template for laws to keep pension funds from following so-called environmental, social and governance trends.

“Politically motivated investing, by definition, takes rates of return off the table,” Jonathan Williams, the chief economist at ALEC, said.

ALEC’s move comes amid an ideological row between proponents of incorporating ESG considerations into business, including some in the financial industry, and some politicians who argue that banks should stick to making money.

ALEC drafts model laws that state legislatures can easily adapt and adopt, complete with references to “[state name]” ready to be filled in. The organization has about 2,000 legislators in its ranks and about 300 additional private sector members.

Its record of seeing its model laws ultimately passed by legislatures has led to complaints from some left-leaning critics that it is effectively drafting laws in secret, though the organization says it operates transparently.

The legislative template that ALEC put forward doesn’t mention ESG outright, though, according to ALEC, countering ESG motivations in state pension fund decision-making is a driving factor behind its proposal.

The template would mandate that investment advisers haven’t “sacrificed investment return…to promote goals unrelated to those pecuniary interests” of state pension fund beneficiaries.

State pension funds are among the largest institutional investors in the U.S. The California Public Employees’ Retirement System, the nation’s largest public pension fund, reported holding about $477 billion in assets at the end of February, while Teacher Retirement System of Texas, which provides retirement benefits for the state’s public school, college and university employees, held about $201 billion in assets as of September 2021.

Leaders of the funds have begun to split on how—and whether it is appropriate—to use their heft to drive change related to ESG issues in the business sphere.

In 2020, the New York State Common Retirement Fund, which provides retirement benefits to the state’s employees, said it would pursue a plan to have a net-zero portfolio in terms of carbon emissions.

Maine legislators in June passed an act that required the Maine Public Employees Retirement System to divest itself of fossil-fuel assets, and three New York City public retirement funds in December said they had sold off $3 billion in energy company stocks because of environmental risks.

Texas has aligned itself with the opposite camp. Comptroller Glenn Hegar in March sent letters to 19 major financial companies in an investigation launched under Texas’ Senate Bill 13, which would bar state agencies from working with investment firms that boycott the energy sector.

Mr. Williams said he didn’t know what states might take up the model policy, but that he was hopeful it would be broadly considered across the country. ALEC, though, bills itself as a proponent of “limited government” and “free markets,” and its model policies historically tend to have more traction with right-leaning state governments.

ALEC isn’t concerned with what retail investors decide to do with their money, but that retiree funds should be invested for maximum returns, a system already in place under current federal rules for private workers’ pension funds, Mr. Williams said.

“The minute that they put the hard earned dollars of state employees, and others within state pension systems and use that ESG- or social- or politically-based investing motivation, they’re foisting their political views on the individual retiree,” Mr. Williams said.


Updated: 4-21-2022

Billionaire Carl Icahn Calls Out Wall Street ESG ‘Hypocrisy’ In McDonald’s Fight

* Billionaire Investor Says ‘ESG Status Quo’ Needs To Change
* Icahn Is Proposing Two Directors To Serve On Mcdonald’s Board

Billionaire activist investor Carl Icahn said Wall Street’s ESG efforts may be the “biggest hypocrisy of our time” with firms cashing in on the investing strategy without concern for actual societal impacts.

The world’s largest money managers, their bankers and lawyers “seem to be engaged in a cover-up to downplay their ESG-related economic incentives and promote their purported social impact,” Icahn said Thursday in a letter to McDonald’s Corp. shareholders. “Clearly, the ESG status quo on Wall Street needs to change.”

Icahn criticized asset managers for “subjectively selecting” which environmental, social and governance issues are important. If ESG is to be more than marketing and way to raise money, investors must “back up their words with actions,” he said.

ESG has ballooned into an industry embraced by the investing and financial world, with the label now slapped on everything from loans to exchange-traded funds as fund managers and bankers generate hundreds of millions of dollars in fees. The global market adds up to about $40 trillion of assets, according to estimates from Bloomberg Intelligence.

That growth has prompted some current and former sustainability executives and academics to criticize ESG for having limited impact in tackling systemic societal issues. Even the man who led a group that coined the acronym has said the finance industry has “sprinkled ESG fairy dust” on products and that there will be an industry shakeout in the next five years.

Icahn said that while ESG covers a range of issues, it’s both “unacceptable and irresponsible” that large asset managers have put little emphasis on animal welfare in their stewardship and proxy-voting guidelines.

Icahn has proposed adding new directors to the boards of McDonald’s and Kroger Co., saying the companies are mistreating pigs in their supply chains by sticking pregnant sows in tight crates.

He told McDonald’s shareholders in his letter that backing his two directors — including one that runs a sustainable-investment firm — would send a message to management teams across the U.S. and the world.

“As climate change and other natural resource challenges continue to threaten our world, animal welfare is an increasingly pivotal societal issue,” Icahn said.

Updated: 5-10-2022

Pence Rips Socially Minded Investing, Wants To ‘Rein In’ ESG

* Former Vice President Giving Energy Policy Speech In Houston
* Pence Is Citing Investor Securing Three Seats On Exxon Board

Former Vice President Mike Pence criticized investor-activist campaigns to force companies such as Exxon Mobil Corp. to follow socially conscious investing principles, saying they elevate “left-wing” goals over the interests of businesses and their employees.

Pence, a potential 2024 Republican presidential candidate, delivered an energy policy speech on Tuesday in Houston and called for states such as Texas to “rein in” the push for employee pension funds to use environmental, social and governance principles in investing.

The former vice president cited activist investor Engine No. 1, which was backed by firms including BlackRock Inc. last year as it mounted a successful proxy campaign that led to the replacement of three directors on Exxon’s board. “Those three are now working to undermine the company from the inside,” Pence said.

ESG investing – the use of environmental, social and governance factors in decision making – has become one of the hottest areas in finance in recent years, with the global market adding as much as $40 trillion in assets, according to estimates from Bloomberg Intelligence.

Yet the strategy has drawn the ire of lawmakers in some states. Officials in Utah and West Virginia have pressed S&P Global Ratings to scrap a system that scores US states based on their ESG-related credentials. In Texas, officials are asking finance firms to disclose their climate policies, including whether they’re limiting business with energy companies.

Finance was always meant to facilitate investment and spur economic growth that benefits the entire US, Pence said. But President Joe Biden and government regulators are “weaponizing the financial system to do the exact opposite,” including through “capricious new ESG regulations that allow left-wing radicals to destroy American energy producers from within.”

Similar accusations have been circulating in Texas for some time, but Pence’s comments are among the most aggressive yet. The growth of ESG investing has pushed some of Wall Street’s biggest investors to become much more active in proxy campaigns.

But the notion that such campaigns hurt companies is unproven, especially in Exxon’s case. Engine No. 1’s success came from persuading large shareholders that an improved climate strategy would also help the oil giant’s financial returns.

After the vote, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Darren Woods quickly made peace with the three new directors, and announced a series of green measures including eliminating emissions from its operations by mid-century and locking in lower spending on fossil fuels. Buoyed by higher oil prices, Exxon’s stock is up 36% in the past year.

GOP lawmakers and powerful industry groups, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, have opposed increased activity by financial watchdogs on ESG issues during the Biden administration, even as the White House has called for increased oil and gas production to help reduce fuel prices.

Biden has also made fighting climate change a centerpiece of his presidency, and last year ordered regulators to develop stronger plans for measuring and mitigating the risks climate change poses to the financial system.

One proposal by the Securities and Exchange Commission would require businesses to reveal the risks a warming planet poses to their operations when they file regulatory statements.


Updated: 5-18-2022

Musk Says ESG ‘An Outrageous Scam’ After Tesla Index Exclusion

Tesla CEO Elon Musk called ESG “an outrageous scam” after the electric vehicle maker lost its spot on an S&P Global index that tracks companies on their environmental, social and governance standards.

Expressing his displeasure in a series of tweets, Musk said the index compiler had “lost their integrity” and said “political attacks” on him would “escalate dramatically in coming months.”

S&P Dow Jones Indices cited concerns related to working conditions at Tesla among its reasons for removing the automaker from its S&P 500 ESG Index.


Updated: 5-19-2022

The Tricky Politics of Anti-ESG Investing

A new asset-management company backed by Peter Thiel claims to be pushing back against an “ideological cartel.” That’s a leap.

Recently, it may feel as if your 401K is just a mathematical distillation of every wrong decision you’ve ever made. Even worse, though, what if your investments are nothing less than the means by which a shallow and divisive agenda is foisted on millions of unsuspecting Americans by an “ideological cartel”?

That choice phrase comes from Vivek Ramaswamy, a former biotech executive, author and now cofounder of a new investment firm seeded by, among others, the billionaire Peter Thiel.

Strive Asset Management seeks to take on the Big Three — BlackRock Inc., State Street Corp. and Vanguard Group Inc. — accusing them of coordinating a campaign to push political objectives that are at odds with their clients’ best interests.

In essence, BlackRock CEO Larry Fink et al. decide that they want to prioritize tackling climate change or systemic racism or whatnot and then use the trillions of passive dollars they invest to force companies to prioritize that, too.

Strive will do the opposite, pushing instead “excellence capitalism” — that is, nudging companies to ditch the political stuff and focus on delivering good products and services.

Ramaswamy laid out his anti-ESG thesis in a book published last year titled Woke, Inc. As much as it contains useful observations, its thesis is overwrought. It may nonetheless be useful for the ESG — environmental, social and governance — movement to grapple with it.

Ramaswamy’s core argument is a warning about the growing power of passive money managers. This has merit. The Big Three own, on their clients’ behalf, about one-fifth of each S&P 500 member, on average, with potentially negative implications for governance and competition. There is already lively debate and a body of academic literature about this.

Still, it remains a leap to conclude that there now exists a cartel — a loaded term — that effectively forces certain political stances on US companies and Americans in general.

It is far from clear that corporations set the pace on social issues rather than take their cues from below. For example, plenty of people — indeed, a majority in the US — are concerned about climate change, and that didn’t require the imprimatur of any corporate executive.

Indeed, while Strive cites a survey by Brunswick Group that it says demonstrates that “most American consumers, voters and shareholders overwhelmingly agree” with its approach, the conclusions of that survey are more nuanced. It does show that only 36% of respondents “unequivocally” think companies should speak out on social issues.

However, another 44% think companies should do so but only if the issues are directly related to their core business. Only 20% give a blanket “no.”

The takeaway is not that companies should avoid taking any positions on such issues but that they should choose their battles carefully and, crucially, pay more than lip service if they do speak out.

The Brunswick survey does reinforce another of Ramaswamy’s criticisms, namely corporate hypocrisy. In his book, he does a good job recounting examples of companies posturing about this or that, often to distract from a more mercenary or scandalous story. Undoubtedly correct, this is hardly a revelation.

About 60% of survey respondents said companies speak out on social issues in order to look better to consumers. Such common skepticism rather undercuts the idea that top-down social conditioning via fiduciary fiat and corporate campaigning is actually effective.

Companies clearly can get out over their skis. Walt Disney Co., for example, in its spat with Florida’s governor, looks to have been bounced into taking a stand before it was sure of its ground. But this is a gray area. It might not be obvious why, say, a software developer would want to take a stand on voting access or transgender rights.

But one rationale may be considerations for the morale of younger workers amid a high quits rate. Would that be “wokeness,” managing the risks around the “S” in ESG, or just a way to retain staff without offering raises? Even hypocrisy can have useful outcomes.

Strive also cites Exxon Mobil Corp. as an example. Last year, Exxon famously lost a proxy battle to an upstart ESG fund, Engine No. 1 LLC.

Ramaswamy says he would have voted against the three dissident directors elected to the board and that the subsequent oil-price spike shows that Exxon would have been better off ignoring the green stuff and drilling more wells. Yet, as Engine No. 1’s own campaign showed, the environmental part was inextricably linked with the governance part.

Exxon’s lagging financial results (and stock) were plausibly blamed on financial indiscipline under a board that looked underqualified to oversee a traditional oil major, let alone one facing the novel challenges of climate change.

The relative restraint on drilling shown by Exxon, among others, in the face of triple-digit oil prices is precisely what has persuaded ambivalent investors to buy back into the sector.

The Exxon example gets at possibly the biggest problem with Strive’s approach — though also with the investment philosophy that Strive sets itself against.

Google articles about Strive and you will find terms like “ESG,” “SRI” — socially responsible investing — and stakeholder capitalism used interchangeably. Similarly, Ramaswamy’s book uses the catch-all term “woke”:

Basically, being woke means obsessing about race, gender, and sexual orientation. Maybe climate change too. That’s the best definition I can give.

If you say so. Dismissing climate change as just another activist obsession speaks to the logical disconnect of exhorting Exxon to focus on delivering a high-quality product without acknowledging that said product carries an inherent, climate-related flaw that requires a strategic response. One person’s liberal hobby horse is another’s systemic risk.

The blurring of lines between ESG, SRI and all the rest of it has done a disservice to sustainable investing, in part by creating space for blanket dismissal.

As my colleague Nir Kaissar has written, some of the blame for this lies with seeming champions such as Fink himself, who mixes calls for companies to adopt pragmatic ESG risk management with very different SRI proposals to exit investments in sectors deemed unsustainable. This sows confusion and invites derision.

In that sense, Strive’s broadside offers a useful wake-up call for ESG to hone its messaging and methodology. ESG’s great strength is its use of objective criteria rather than subjective beliefs to reduce financial risk or enhance financial performance. It also allows for more nuance; one could, for example, invest ESG-style in a coal-heavy utility today in order to help along (and benefit from) its future renewables projects.

The fuzziness of the investment movement that anti-woke asset management sets itself against is a doubled-edged sword. Most passive investors prize the low costs that come with scale, and “excellence capitalism” seems too vague a pitch to disrupt that. Nevertheless, Strive’s timing is impeccable, effectively taking the opposite side of what has become a crowded trade.

That timing also makes it suspect. Strive launches amid a gathering Republican campaign against companies taking positions that oppose the party line on wedge issues.

The day after Strive’s announcement, former Vice President Mike Pence gave a speech in Texas attacking ESG and socially minded investing, making a wild claim that Exxon’s new directors were “now working to undermine the company from the inside.”

As much as Strive touts itself as “depoliticizing corporate America,” I’m afraid you don’t get to do that credibly while also boasting about seed money from Thiel.

If Tesla Isn’t Good Enough For An ESG Index, Then Who Is?

The carmaker’s removal from the S&P 500 ESG Index places in stark relief the broader market’s conflation of the label with sustainability.

Tesla Inc.’s removal this week from an industry benchmark index is raising new questions about what ESG actually means to investors.

The strategy, widely seen as favoring industries ostensibly interested in sustainability (of the environmental, social and governance sort), started about two decades ago as a way to protect investors from risks tied to things like global warming, labor violations and discrimination.

Since then, it’s morphed into a $35 trillion industry that’s allowed millions of investors to feel as though they’re “doing good.” And now people are confused about what ESG is really supposed to achieve.

“The market continues to conflate ESG with sustainability, and you’re certainly seeing that play out here,” said Rob Du Boff, senior ESG analyst at Bloomberg Intelligence. “Our ETF team likes to note Tesla is the ultimate Rorschach test for ESG investors.”

While many would agree few automakers have done more than Elon Musk’s company in the global shift away from fossil fuels, Tesla’s management and workplace issues have been at times problematic. So much so that S&P Dow Jones Indices, while acknowledging Tesla’s environmental prowess, nevertheless decided to remove the electric vehicle maker from the S&P 500 ESG Index over safety and labor issues.

“How can a company whose self-declared mission is to ‘accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy’ not make the cut in an ESG index?” wrote Margaret Dorn, senior director and head of ESG indexes for S&P Dow Jones in North America, in a blog post. Answering her own question, she said “there are many reasons,” including that Tesla “has fallen behind its peers when examined through a wider ESG lens.”

Dorn focused on social and governance factors at the company, which had a negative impact on its overall ESG score. She singled out two events centered around allegations of racial discrimination and poor working conditions at Tesla’s factory in Fremont, California, as well as its handling of a U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration investigation after multiple deaths and injuries were linked to its “autopilot” function.

Academics like Todd Cort of Yale University agree with Dorn. The S&P methodology focuses on corporate performance, and Tesla’s “management systems and controls are still pretty undeveloped” relative to industry leaders, he said.

But investors including Cathie Wood of ARK Investment Management have strenuously disagreed. In a post on Twitter, she called S&P’s decision “ridiculous.” It’s “not worthy of any other response.”

Paul Watchman, an industry consultant who wrote a seminal report in the mid-2000s that helped spur ESG investing, said Tesla should be part of ESG indexes. “Not all breaches of ESG are equal, and this assessment shows just how warped the S&P assessment is,” he said.

Tesla does have multiple problems related to corporate governance and health and safety, but Watchman said they should be viewed in context. “However relevant these failures and shortcomings may be, they aren’t nearly as bad other companies.” Fossil fuel giants being one example, he said.

MSCI Inc., the leading provider of ESG ratings, still includes Tesla (as well as Exxon Mobil Corp.) in its more widely tracked ESG-focused indexes, adding to the confusion about what ESG actually is. (The methodologies MSCI and S&P use for their ESG indexes are very similar.)

MSCI said its ESG-focused indexes are designed to “maximize their exposure to positive ESG factors” while “exhibiting risk and return characteristics” similar to the overall market. Companies with links to the tobacco, “controversial” weapons, civilian firearms, oil sands and thermal coal are excluded from the indexes.

S&P Dow Jones Indices said its S&P 500 ESG Index is “a broad-based, market-cap-weighted index that’s designed to measure the performance of securities meeting sustainability criteria, while maintaining similar overall industry weights as the S&P 500.” The index also excludes companies engaged in the thermal coal, tobacco and controversial weapons industries.

Still, widespread confusion over the metrics and measurements that go into ESG has become more controversial over time. But from a market standpoint, ESG indexes matter because investors have poured $410 billion into passively run ESG-labeled funds, according to data compiled by Bloomberg Intelligence.

Tesla has made the world a greener place with their innovative electric vehicles, and investors have been rewarded as a result, BI’s Du Boff said. Shareholders also have been stung by Musk’s tussles with the US Securities and Exchange Commission and his recent takeover approach to Twitter Inc., he said.

“Turns out investors should have been paying closer attention to signs of poor corporate governance,” Du Boff said.

And that brings the conversation back to trying to define ESG. Hours after it emerged that S&P Dow Jones had expelled Tesla, Shaheen Contractor and Eric Balchunas from BI published a note with this headline: “Is Tesla ESG? Many Funds Think So Even as S&P ESG Index Drops It.”

Contractor and Balchunas said their analysis ranks Tesla 46th in the S&P 500 for inclusion in ESG-focused funds. “The automaker’s ESG status remains among the most debated for any stock,” they wrote.

Updated: 5-24-2022

BNY Mellon To Pay $1.5 Million To Settle ESG-Related Charges

BNY Mellon has settled charges that it made a series of misstatements and omissions about the environmental, social, and governance aspects of a series of mutual funds it worked with as a registered investment advisor.

Under the agreement, BNY Mellon accepted a censure for its conduct from the Securities and Exchange Commission and agreed to pay a penalty of $1.5 million.

The settlement highlights the growing regulatory scrutiny that ESG-labeled investments are facing as assets continue to flow into funds that advertise a values-based component.

The SEC has named ESG investments as one of its examination priorities this year, and commission officials have said that they are a growing concern.

Tomorrow, the SEC is planning to vote on draft rules that would crack down on how advisors and fund companies market investment products using terms like “sustainable” or “carbon-neutral.”

In many cases, the trouble with ESG boils down to the simple precept that firms need to deliver what they promise. If a firm is touting an ESG strategy in an advertisement or some other communication with clients or prospects, it needs to be truthful in what it’s describing, and be sure that it adheres to any commitments it is making.

That was the issue with BNY Mellon, according to the SEC. The firm was assuring investors in the prospectuses for a series of investment vehicles it was advising known as the Overlay Funds that each fund had undergone an ESG quality review to ensure it lived up to its sustainability commitment.

In fact, the SEC alleged, some individuals at the affiliated subadvisor BNY Mellon relied on to conduct those reviews selected investments for the funds that had not gone through the ESG evaluation process.

Over a period from January 2019 through March 2021, one of the funds made 185 investments, but 67 of those did not go through the ESG review, according to the SEC.

“Numerous equity and/or corporate bond investments held by certain Overlay Funds did not have an ESG quality review score as of the time of investment,” the SEC said in its settlement.

For its part, BNY Mellon is eager to move on from the incident, and said it has updated its communications to ensure it is accurately describing its ESG policies.

“BNY Mellon Investment Adviser is pleased to resolve this matter concerning certain statements it made about the ESG review process for six U.S. mutual funds,” the company said in a statement. “While none of these funds were part of the BNYMIA ‘Sustainable’ fund range, we take our regulatory and compliance responsibilities seriously and have updated our materials as part of our commitment to ensuring our communications to investors are precise and complete.”

Updated: 8-11-2022

Thiel-Backed Firm Debuts Anti-ESG ETF

Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World's Largest Ponzi Scheme

An anti-activism exchange-traded fund of sorts has launched to supposedly “unshackle” energy companies from climate concerns that some investors have forced them to reckon with.

The aim of the Strive U.S. Energy ETF (ticker DRLL), which began trading Tuesday, is to accumulate enough assets for the Ohio-based manager to have say in the boardroom, according to co-founder Vivek Ramaswamy.

Strive launched in 2022 with backing from billionaire investors including Peter Thiel and Bill Ackman.

DRLL joins a small but growing wave of so-called anti-woke ETFs after issuers such as BlackRock Inc. put their heft behind environmental, social and governance-focused funds in recent years.

With an expense ratio of 41 basis points, Strive is directly positioning itself against BlackRock’s $2 billion iShares US Energy ETF (IYE), which charges the same fee. IYE, which tracks an index that measures the performance of the energy sector, doesn’t have an explicit ESG bend.

However, DRLL’s selling point is that Strive would use its shareholder-voting power to encourage oil and companies to “drill more and frack more,” Ramaswamy said.

While Energy Information Administration data Wednesday showed US crude production has returned to the highest level since April 2020, global oil supply is extremely tight.

“We are post-ESG,” Ramaswamy said in a phone interview. “US energy stocks have tremendous potential if they’re unshackled from the shareholder-imposed ESG mandates.”

If successful, DRLL would be the ideological foil to the experience of Engine No. 1, which won three seats on the board of Exxon Mobil Corp. in June 2021 to push the company to diversify beyond oil.

The activist shareholder went on to launch the $84 million Transform Climate ETF (NETZ) in February.

Roughly $27 million traded in DRLL on Tuesday, Bloomberg data show. While most of that likely came from investors lined up ahead of time, it’s an impressive amount of day-one volume for an “indie ETF,” according to Bloomberg Intelligence senior ETF analyst Eric Balchunas.

Anti-ESG Movement Reveals How Blackrock Pulls-off World's Largest Ponzi Scheme

Whether DRLL sustains that momentum remains to be seen. Principles-based ETFs have struggled to gain traction in recent years, with the Point Bridge GOP Stock Tracker ETF (MAGA), which invests in companies that support the Republican party, attracting just $16 million in assets despite outperforming the S&P 500 this year.

ESG funds have also struggled lately. The category has raked in roughly $4 billion so far in 2022, a massive slowdown after two straight years of more than $30 billion in inflows, Bloomberg data show.

“Principle-based ETFs have historically had a really tough time gathering assets, so it is definitely helpful to have a nice start like this,” Balchunas said. “Now comes the hard part though of finding other investors outside of the friends and family.”


Related Articles:

Bitcoin Information & Resources (#GotBitcoin?)

$35 TRILLION Global Stock Market Meltdown!!! (#GotBitcoin)

Citi Trader Is Scapegoat For Flash Crash In Europe Stocks (#GotBitcoin)

Building And Running Businesses In The ‘Spirit Of Bitcoin’

Will Community Group Buying Work In The US?

Sri Lanka’s And Lebanon’s Defaults Could Be The First Of Many (#GotBitcoin)

Ultimate Resource On Bitcoin Price Manipulation By Wall Street

Ultimate Resource On Russians Oligarchs And The Impact Of Sanctions On Them

Ultimate Resource For The Crisis Taking Place In The Nickel Market

Does Your Doctor or Hospital Have A Financial Relationship With Big Pharma?

Former World Bank Chief Didn’t Act On Warnings Of Sexual Harassment

AI Experts Warn of Potential Cyberwar Facing Banking Sector vs Bitcoin Which Can Be Stored Off-line

Archaeologists Uncover Five Tombs In Egypt’s Saqqara Necropolis

What The Fed’s Rate Hike Means For Inflation, Housing, Crypto And Stocks

Unusual Side Hustles You May Not Have Thought Of

Happy International Women’s Day! Leaders Share Their Experiences In Crypto

Russia’s Independent Journalists Including Those Who Revealed The Pandora Papers Need Your Help

The Miracle Of Blockchain’s Triple Entry Accounting

Catawba, Native-American Tribe Approves First Digital Economic Zone In The United States

Ultimate Resource On Music And NFTs And The Implications For The Entertainment Industry

Traders Prefer Gold, Fiat Safe Havens Over Bitcoin As Russia Goes To War

Ultimate Resource On Music Catalog Deals

Why We Should Welcome Another Crypto Winter

Canada’s Major Banks Go Offline In Mysterious (Bank Run?) Hours-Long Outage (#GotBitcoin)

BlackRock CEO Larry Fink ($10Trillion AUM) Has Unchecked Influence In Financial Markets And Needs To Be Reined In

The Ultimate Resource For The Bitcoin Miner And The Mining Industry (Page#2) #GotBitcoin

Investors Pool Funds To Help Poor People Sue Big Companies

100 Million Americans Can Legally Bet on the Super Bowl. A Spot Bitcoin ETF? Forget About it!

‘I Cry Every Day’: Olympic Athletes Slam Food, COVID Tests And Conditions In Beijing

Ultimate Resource On Myanmar’s Involvement With Crypto-Currencies

Bitcoin For Corporations | Michael Saylor | Bitcoin Corporate Strategy

Japan’s $1 Trillion Crypto Market May Ease Onerous Listing Rules

How Bitcoin Contributions Funded A $1.4M Solar Installation In Zimbabwe

BREAKING: Arizona State Senator Introduces Bill To Make Bitcoin Legal Tender

Vast Troves of Classified Info Undermine National Security, Spy Chief Says

Inflation And A Tale of Cantillionaires

America COMPETES Act Would Be Disastrous For Bitcoin Cryptocurrency And More

Petition Calling For Resignation Of U​.​S. Securities/Exchange Commission Chair Gary Gensler

McDonald’s Jumps On Bitcoin Memewagon, Crypto Twitter Responds

Smart Money Is Buying Bitcoin Dip. Stocks, Not So Much

Metformin And Exercise

Henrietta Lacks And Her Remarkable Cells Will Finally See Some Payback

Stealing The Blood Of The Young May Make You More Youthful

Doctors Show Implicit Bias Towards Black Patients

Indexing Is Coming To Crypto Funds Via Decentralized Exchanges

Imagine There’s No Bitcoin. If You Can, Then We Haven’t Done Our Jobs

US Stocks Historically Deliver Strong Gains In Fed Hike Cycles (GotBitcoin)

As Crypto Crash Erases Approx. $1 Trillion in Market Value Users Say, “Thanks But No Thanks” To Bailouts

Federal Regulator Says Credit Unions Can Partner With Crypto Providers

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Request Reveals How The Trump Administration Really Felt About Bitcoin

Jack Dorsey Announces Bitcoin Legal Defense Fund

Four Ways Black Families Can Fight Against Rising Inflation (#GotBitcoin)

Bitcoin’s Dominance of Crypto Payments Is Starting To Erode

Walmart Filings Reveal Plans To Create Cryptocurrency, NFTs

Ultimate Resource On Duke of York’s Prince Andrew And His Sex Scandal

FDA Approves First-Ever Arthritis Pain Management Drug For Cats

Is Art Therapy The Path To Mental Well-Being?

Arkansas Tries A New Strategy To Lure Tech Workers: Free Bitcoin

Wordle Is The New Lingo Turning Fans Into Argumentative Strategy Nerds

Nas Selling Rights To Two Songs Via Crypto Music Startup Royal

Teen Cyber Prodigy Stumbled Onto Flaw Letting Him Hijack Teslas

Joe Rogan: I Have A Lot Of Hope For Bitcoin

How Black Businesses Can Prosper From Targeting A Trillion-Dollar Black Culture Market (#GotBitcoin)

‘Yellowstone’ Is A Huge Hit That Started With Small-Town Fans

Sidney Poitier, Actor Who Made Oscars History, Dies At 94

How Jessica Simpson Almost Lost Her Name And Her Billion Dollar Empire

Ultimate Resource On Solana Outages And DDoS Attacks

Ultimate Resource On Kazakhstan As Second In Bitcoin Mining Hash Rate In The World After US

Nasdaq-Listed Blockchain Firm BTCS To Offer Dividend In Bitcoin; Shares Surge

Bitcoin Enthusiast And CEO Brian Armstrong Buys Los Angeles Home For $133 Million

Pay-By-The-Mile Insurance

Ultimate Resource On A Strong Dollar’s Impact On Bitcoin

Ultimate Resource On Bitcoin Unit Bias

The $2 Trillion Cryptocurrency Market Is Drawing Interest From Investors, Scrutiny From U.S. Regulators

Yosemite Is Forcing Native American Homeowners To Leave Without Compensation. Here’s Why

Raoul Pal Believes Institutions Have Finished Taking Profits As Year Winds Up

10 Women Who Used Crypto To Make A Difference In 2021

Disposable Masks That Don’t Pollute

Move Over, Tennis And Golf. Networks And Brands Are Cashing In On Pickleball

Athletes Unlimited Signs Big Sponsor In Boost For Women’s Sports

Grounded By The Pandemic? Donate Your Unused Points And Miles

Crypto And Its Many Fees: What To Know About The Hidden Costs Of Digital Currency

Deputizing Blockchain To Fight Corrupt Governments. Also America Blows It’s Tokenization Advantage

Crypto Attracts More Money In 2021 Than All Previous Years Combined

The US Shouldn’t Be Afraid of China

Ultimate Resource On Donald J. Trump

Ubiquitous Surveillance And Security

Finding Your Superpower In A Higher-Priced World With On-The-Spot Comparison Shopping

How remanufacturing is combating global warming

Shoppers Lined Up At Dawn For The ‘Open Run’ On $9,500 Chanel Bags

How Banks Win When Interest Rates Rise (#GotBitcoin)

Nassar Victims Reach $380 Million Settlement With USA Gymnastics And U.S. Olympic And Paralympic Committee

Crypto, NFTs And Tungsten Cubes: A Guide To Giving Cash In 2021

Tech Giants Apple, Microsoft, Amazon And Others Warn of Widespread Software Flaw

Ultimate Resource On Web3 And Crypto’s Attempt To Reinvent The Internet

Bitcoin Core Developer Samuel Dobson Decides It Is ‘Time To Go’

The Biden Economy Is Actually Pretty Good

Live: House Memo Details Congress’ Priorities Ahead Of Crypto CEO Hearing

Bitcoin To Face Competition For 24hr. Trading From Stock Start-up While Crypto Exchanges Soon To Face Massive Fee Compression

Verizon is Tracking iPhone Users by Default And There’s Nothing Apple Can Do. How to Turn It Off

A Plant-based Pet Food Frenzy Is On The Horizon

What Is Cryptocurrency, And How Does It Work?

One Of The Weirdest Reports: Investors React To 12-3-2021 Jobs Data (#GotBitcoin)

Bitcoin Buyers Flock To Investment Clubs Such As “Black Bitcoin Billionaires” To Learn Rules of The Road

Bitcoin Price Tumbles After Wall Street Selloff – El Salvador Buys The Dip – Leveraged Plays Get Liquidated – Zzzzzzz😻😍🤩

Ultimate Resource On China’s ‘Common Prosperity’ Drive How It Plans To Redistribute The Wealth

Note To Brands: Crypto Isn’t Funny Money. It’s Community

How Crypto Vigilantes Are Hunting Scams In A $100 Billion Market

6 Questions For Lyn Alden Schwartzer Of Lyn Alden Investment Strategy

Bitcoin Offers Little Refuge From Covid Market Rout

The Anti-Work Brigade Targets Amazon On Black Friday

Reddit’s Latest Money-Making Obsession Is An Obscure Fed Facility (Reverse Repo or RRP)

Federal Reserve To Taper Money Printing That Fueled Bitcoin Rally

Apple Sues NSO Group To Curb The Abuse Of State-Sponsored Spyware

Did You Buy Your Cat or Dog A Christmas Present? Join The Club

Gen Z Has $360 Billion To Spend, Trick Is Getting Them To Buy (#GotBitcoin)

10 Fundamental Rights For All Crypto Users Including Responsibilities For The Industry

Texas Plans To Become The Bitcoin Capital, Vulnerable Power Grid And All

Bitcoin Caught Between Longer-Term Buyers, Leveraged Speculators

Outcry Grows As China Breaks Silence On Missing Tennis Star

China Left In Shock Following Brutal Killing Of Corgi During Covid-19 Disinfection

Biden Orders Feds To Tackle ‘Epidemic’ Of Missing Or Murdered Indigenous People

An Antidote To Inflation? ‘Buy Nothing’ Groups Gain Popularity

Ultimate Resource For Cooks, Chefs And The Latest Food Trends

Open Enrollment Gameplan: How To Compare Your Partner’s Health Insurance With Yours

Millions Of Americans Are Skipping The Dentist. Lenders See A Financing Niche

Apps To Help Avoid Food Waste

NYC And Miami Mayors (Eric Adams And Francis Suarez) Duke It Out On Twitter Over Who Is The Bigger Crypto Advocate

Matt Damon To Promote Crypto.Com In Race To Lure New Users

US General Likens China’s Hypersonic Missile Test To A ‘Sputnik Moment’

The Key To Tracking Corona And Other Any Virus Could Be Your Poo

How To Evade A Chinese Bitcoin Ban

US Government Failed To Spot Pedophile At Indian Health Service Hospitals

Netflix Defends Dave Chappelle While Seeing “Squid Game” Become It’s Biggest Hit Ever

Ultimate Resource On Various Countries Adopting Bitcoin

Ultimate Resource On Bitcoin Billionaires

Stripe Re-Enters Processing Payments Using Cryptos 3 Years After Dropping Bitcoin

Why Is My Cat Rubbing His Face In Ants?

Pets Score Company Perks As The ‘New Dependents’

What Pet Owners Should Know About Chronic Kidney Disease In Dogs And Cats

The Facebook Whistleblower, Frances Haugen, Says She Wants To Fix The Company, Not Harm It

Walk-in Cryptocurrency Exchanges Emerge Amid Bitcoin Boom

Pandora Papers Exposed Offshore Havens And Hidden Riches Of World Leaders And Billionaires Exposed In Unprecedented Leak (#GotBitcoin)

Europe’s Giant Job-Saving Experiment Pays Off In Pandemic

To Survive The Pandemic, Entrepreneurs Might Try Learning From Nature

Fed Up Says Federal Leaders Robert Kaplan And Eric Rosengren Should Be Fired Over Insider Stock Trades

Rise of The FinFluencer And How They Target Young And Inexperienced Investors

Hyperinflation Concerns Top The Worry List For UBS Clients

Sotheby’s Opens First-Ever Exhibition of Black Jewelry Designers

Return Of Willa And Charles Bruce’s Manhattan Beach Property Paves Way For Reparations For Other African Americans

America And Europe Face Bleak Winter As Energy Prices Surge To Record Levels

Ultimate Resource On Vaccine Boosters

Ultimate Resource For Covid19

Unvaccinated COVID-19 Hospitalizations Cost The U.S. Health System Billions Of Dollars

Wallets Are Over. Your Phone Is Your Everything Now

Crypto Mining Demand Soars In Vietnam Amid Bitcoin Rally

How The Supreme Court Texas Abortion Ruling Spurred A Wave Of ‘Rage Giving’

Ultimate Resource On Global Inflation And Rising Interest Rates (#GotBitcoin)

Ultimate Resource On Ethiopia

Presearch Decentralized Crypto-Powered Search Engine

How To Make Vietnam A Powerful Trade Ally For The U.S.

Banking Could Go The Way of News Publishing (#GotBitcoin)

Operation “Choke Point”: An Aggressive FTC And The Response of The Payment Systems Industry

Bezos-Backed Fusion Startup Picks U.K. To Build First Plant

TikTok Is The Place To Go For Financial Advice If You’re A Young Adult

More Companies Weigh Penalizing Employees Without Covid-19 Vaccinations

Crypto Firms Want Fed Payment Systems Access—And Banks Are Resisting

Travel Expert Oneika Raymond’s Favorite Movies And Shows

How To Travel Luxuriously In The Summer Of Covid-19, From Private Jets To Hotel Buyouts

Nurses Travel From Coronavirus Hot Spot To Hot Spot, From New York To Texas

Travel Is Bouncing Back From Coronavirus, But Tourists Told To Stick Close To Home

Tricks For Making A Vacation Feel Longer—And More Fulfilling

Who Is A Perpetual Traveler (AKA Digital Nomad) Under The US Tax Code

Four Stories Of How People Traveled During Covid

Director Barry Jenkins Is The Travel Nerd’s Travel Nerd

Why Is My Cat Rubbing His Face In Ants?

Natural Cure For Hyperthyroidism In Cats Including How To Switch Him/Her To A Raw Food Diet

A Paycheck In Crypto? There Might Be Some Headaches

Crypto Doesn’t Have To Enable Tax Cheats And Neither Does Wall Street’s Titans Stockpiling $2.6Tril. Overseas

About 46 Million Americans Or 17% Now Own Bitcoin vs 50% Who Own Stocks

Josephine Baker Is 1st Black Woman Given Paris Burial Honor

Cryptocurrency’s Surge Leaves Global Watchdogs Trying To Catch Up

It Could Just Be The U.S. Is Not The Center Of The Crypto Universe

Blue Turmeric Is The Latest Super Spice To Shake Up Pantry Shelves

Vice President Kamala Harris To Focus On Countering China On Southeast Asia Trip

The Vaccinated Are Worried And Scientists Don’t Have Answers

Silver Lining of Coronavirus, Return of Animals, Clear Skies, Quiet Streets And Tranquil Shores

Cocoa Cartel Stirs Up Global Chocolate Market With Increased Use Of Child Labor

Killer Whale Dies Suddenly At SeaWorld San Diego

NSA (Loveint Scandal) Channels Agency’s Enormous Eavesdropping Power To Spy On Love Interests (#NSAlovepoems, #NSAromcom)

Does Getting Stoned Help You Get Toned? Gym Rats Embrace Marijuana

Marijuana’s Money Man

Hope Wiseman Is The Youngest Black Woman Dispensary Owner In The United States

What Sex Workers Want To Do With Bitcoin

How A Video Résumé Can Get You Hired In The Covid-19 Job Market

US Lawmakers Urge CFTC And SEC To Form Joint Working Group On Digital Assets

Bitcoin’s Surge Lacks Extreme Leverage That Powered Past Rallies

JP Morgan Says, “Proof-Of-Stake Will Eat Proof-Of-Work For Breakfast — Here’s Why

Ranking The Currencies That Could Unseat The Dollar (#GotBitcoin)

The Botanist Daring To Ask: What If Plants Have Intelligence?

After A Year Without Rowdy Tourists, European Cities Want To Keep It That Way

Prospering In The Pandemic, Some Feel Financial Guilt And Gratitude

The Secret Club For Billionaires Who Care About Climate Change

A List Of Relief Funds For Restaurants, Bars, And Food Service Workers

Bill And Melinda Gates Welcome The Philanthropists Of The Future

Ex-wife of Jeff Bezos Amazon CEO, MacKenzie Scott Sets Record By Giving Away $6 Billion In Six Months

CO2-Capture Plan Using Old Oil Reservoirs In Denmark Moves Ahead

Could This Be The Digital Nose Of The Future?

Bitcoin Fans Are Suddenly A Political Force

Walmart Seeks Crypto Product Lead To Drive Digital Currency Strategy

Music Distributor DistroKid Raises Money At $1.3 Billion Valuation

Books To Read, Foods To Eat, Movies To Watch, Exercises To Do And More During Covid19 Lockdown

Hacker Claims To Steal Data Of 100 Million T-Mobile Customers

Is The Cryptocurrency Epicenter Moving Away From East Asia?

Vietnam Leads Crypto Adoption In Finder’s 27-Country Survey

Bitcoin’s Latest Surge Lacks Extreme Leverage That Powered Past Rallies

Creatine Supplementation And Brain Health

Nigerian State Says 337 Students Missing After Gunmen Attack

America’s 690 Mile-Long Yard Sale Entices A Nation of Deal Hunters

Russian Economy Grew (10.3% GDP) Fastest Since 2000 On Lockdown Rebound

US Troops Going Hungry (Food Insecurity) Is A National Disgrace

Overheated, Unprepared And Under-protected: Climate Change Is Killing People, Pets And Crops

Accenture Confirms Hack After LockBit Ransomware Data Leak Threats

Climate Change Prompts These Six Pests To Come And Eat Your Crops

Leaked EU Plan To Green Its Timber Industry Sparks Firestorm

Students Take To The Streets For Day Of Action On Climate Change

Living In Puerto Rico, Where The Taxes Are Low And Crypto Thrives

Bitcoin Community Leaders Join Longevity Movement

Some Climate Change Effects May Be Irreversible, U.N. Panel Says

Israel’s Mossad Intelligence Agency Is Seeking To Hire A Crypto Expert

What You Should Know About ‘529’ Education-Savings Accounts

Bitcoin Doesn’t Need Presidents, But Presidents Need Bitcoin

Plant-Based Fish Is Rattling The Multibillion-Dollar Seafood Industry

The Scientific Thrill Of The Charcoal Grill

Escaping The Efficiency Trap—and Finding Some Peace of Mind

Sotheby’s Selling Exhibition Celebrates 21 Black Jewelry Designers

Marketers Plan Giveaways For Covid-19 Vaccine Recipients

Haiti’s President Moise Assassinated In Night Attack On His Home

The Argentine River That Carries Soybeans To World Is Drying Up

A Harvard Deal Tries To Break The Charmed Circle Of White Wealth

China Three-Child Policy Aims To Rejuvenate Aging Population

California Wants Its Salton Sea Located In The Imperial Valley To Be ‘Lithium Valley’

Who Will Win The Metaverse? Not Mark Zuckerberg or Facebook

The Biggest Challenge For Crypto Exchanges Is Global Price Fragmentation

London Block Exchange – LBX Buy, Sell & Trade Cryptocurrencies?

Chicago World’s Fair Of Money To Unveil A Private Coin Collection Worth Millions of Dollars

Bitcoin Dominance On The Rise Once Again As Crypto Market Rallies

Uruguayan Senator Introduces Bill To Enable Use Of Crypto For Payments

Talen Energy Investors Await Update From The Top After Pivot To Crypto

Ultimate Resource On Hydrogen And Green Hydrogen As Alternative Energy

Covid Made The Chief Medical Officer A C-Suite Must

When Will Stocks Drop? Watch Profit Margins (And Get Nervous)

Behind The Rise Of U.S. Solar Power, A Mountain of Chinese Coal

‘Buy Now, Pay Later’ Installment Plans Are Having A Moment AgainUS Crypto Traders Evade Offshore Exchange Bans

5 Easy Ways Crypto Investors Can Make Money Without Needing To Trade

What’s A ‘Pingdemic’ And Why Is The U.K. Having One?

“Crypto-Property:” Ohio Court Says Crypto-Currency Is Personal Property Under Homeowners’ Policy

Retinal And/Or Brain Photon Emissions

Antibiotic Makers Concede In The War On Superbugs (#GotColloidalSilver)

What It Takes To Reconnect Black Communities Torn Apart by Highways

Dr Klinghardt Connects The Negative Health Risks & Dangers Of Wi-Fi, EMR/EMF’s And The Gut Microbiome

Those Probiotics May Actually Be Hurting Your ‘Gut Health’ We’re Not Prepared To Live In This Surveillance Society

How To Create NFTs On The Bitcoin Blockchain

World Health Organization Forced Valium Into Israeli And Palestinian Water Supply

Blockchain Fail-Safes In Space: Spacechain, Blockstream And Cryptosat

What Is A Digital Nomad And How Do You Become One?

Flying Private Is Cheaper Than You Think — Here Are 6 Airlines To Consider For Your Next Flight

What Hackers Can Learn About You From Your Social-Media Profile

How To Protect Your Online Privacy While Working From Home

Rising Diaper Prices Prompt States To Get Behind Push To Pay

Want To Invest In Cybersecurity? Here Are Some ETFs To Consider

US Drops Visa Fraud Cases Against Five Chinese Researchers

Risks To Great Barrier Reef Could Thwart Tycoon’s Coal Plans

The Super Rich Are Choosing Singapore As The World’s Safest Haven

What Is Long COVID (PASC)?

Jack Dorsey Advocates Ending Police Brutality In Nigeria Through Bitcoin

Psychedelics Replace Pot As The New Favorite Edgy Investment

Who Gets How Much: Big Questions About Reparations For Slavery

US City To Pay Reparations To African-American Community With Tax On Marijuana Sales

Slaveowners Got Reparations For Financial Loss After Emancipation. Enslaved African-Americans Got Nothing

Crypto-Friendly Investment Search Engine Vincent Raises $6M

Trading Firm Of Richest Crypto Billionaire Reveals Buying ‘A Lot More’ Bitcoin Below $30K

Bitcoin Security Still A Concern For Some Institutional Investors

Weaponizing Blockchain — Vast Potential, But Projects Are Kept Secret

China Is Pumping Money Out Of The US With Bitcoin

Tennessee City Wants To Accept Property Tax Payments In Bitcoin

Currency Experts Say Cryptonotes, Smart Banknotes And Cryptobanknotes Are In Our Future

Housing Insecurity Is Now A Concern In Addition To Food Insecurity

Food Insecurity Driven By Climate Change Has Central Americans Fleeing To The U.S.

Eco Wave Power Global (“EWPG”) Is A Leading Onshore Wave Energy Technology Company

How And Why To Stimulate Your Vagus Nerve!

Green Finance Isn’t Going Where It’s Needed

Shedding Some Light On The Murky World Of ESG Metrics

SEC Targets Greenwashers To Bring Law And Order To ESG

Spike Lee’s TV Ad For Crypto Touts It As New Money For A Diverse World

Bitcoin Network Node Count Sets New All-Time High

Tesla Needs The Bitcoin Lightning Network For Its Autonomous ‘Robotaxi’ Fleet

How To Buy Bitcoin: A Guide To Investing In The Cryptocurrency

How Crypto is Primed To Transform Movie Financing

Paraguayan Lawmakers To Present Bitcoin Bill On July 14

Bitcoin’s Biggest Hack In History: 184.4 Billion Bitcoin From Thin Air

Paul Sztorc On Measuring Decentralization Of Nodes And Blind Merge Mining

Reality Show Is Casting Crypto Users Locked Out Of Their Wallets

EA, Other Videogame Companies Target Mobile Gaming As Pandemic Wanes

Strike To Offer ‘No Fee’ Bitcoin Trading, Taking Aim At Coinbase And Square

Coinbase Reveals Plans For Crypto App Store Amid Global Refocus

Mexico May Not Be Following El Salvador’s Example On Bitcoin… Yet

What The Crypto Crowd Doesn’t Understand About Economics

My Local Crypto Space Just Got Raided By The Feds. You Know The Feds Scared Of Crypto

My Local Crypto Space Just Got Raided By The Feds. You Know The Feds Scared Of Crypto

Bitcoin Slumps Toward Another ‘Crypto Winter’

NYC’s Mayoral Frontrunner Pledges To Turn City Into Bitcoin Hub

Lyn Alden On Bitcoin, Inflation And The Potential Coming Energy Shock

$71B In Crypto Has Reportedly Passed Through ‘Blockchain Island’ Malta Since 2017

Startups Race Microsoft To Find Better Ways To Cool Data Centers

Why PCs Are Turning Into Giant Phones

Panama To Present Crypto-Related Bill In July

Hawaii Had Largest Increase In Demand For Crypto Out Of US States This Year

What To Expect From Bitcoin As A Legal Tender

Petition: Satoshi Nakamoto Should Receive The Nobel Peace Prize

Can Bitcoin Turbo-Charge The Asset Management Industry?

Bitcoin Interest Drops In China Amid Crackdown On Social Media And Miners

Multi-trillion Asset Manager State Street Launches Digital Currency Division

Wall Street’s Crypto Embrace Shows In Crowd At Miami Conference

MIT Bitcoin Experiment Nets 13,000% Windfall For Students Who Held On

Petition: Let’s Make Bitcoin Legal Tender For United States of America

El Salvador Plans Bill To Adopt Bitcoin As Legal Tender

What Is Dollar Cost Averaging Bitcoin?

Paxful Launches Tool Allowing Businesses To Receive Payment In Bitcoin

CEOs Of Top Russian Banks Sberbank And VTB Blast Bitcoin

President of El Salvador Says He’s Submitting Bill To Make Bitcoin Legal Tender

Bitcoin Falls As Weibo Appears To Suspend Some Crypto Accounts

Israel-Gaza Conflict Spurs Bitcoin Donations To Hamas

Bitcoin Bond Launch Brings Digital Currency Step Closer To ‘World Of High Finance’

Worst Month For BTC Price In 10 Years: 5 Things To Watch In Bitcoin

Networks vs. Governments: Could Crypto-Powered Digital Communities Challenge the Power of Cities and States?

Bitcoin Card Game Bitopoly Launches

Carbon-Neutral Bitcoin Funds Gain Traction As Investors Seek Greener Crypto

Ultimate Resource On The Bitcoin Mining Council

Libertarian Activists Launch Bitcoin Embassy In New Hampshire

Why The Bitcoin Crash Was A Big Win For Cryptocurrencies

Treasury Calls For Crypto Transfers Over $10,000 To Be Reported To IRS

Crypto Traders Can Automate Legal Requests With New DoNotPay Services

Bitcoin Marches Away From Crypto Pack In Show of Resiliency

NBA Top Shot Lawsuit Says Dapper’s NFTs Need SEC Clampdown

Maximalists At The Movies: Bitcoiners Crowdfunding Anti-FUD Documentary Film

Caitlin Long Reveals The ‘Real Reason’ People Are Selling Crypto

Microsoft Quietly Closing Down Azure Blockchain In September

How Much Energy Does Bitcoin Actually Consume?

Bitcoin Should Be Priced In Sats And How Do We Deliver This Message

Bitcoin Loses 6% In An Hour After Tesla Drops Payments Over Carbon Concerns

Crypto Twitter Decodes Why Zuck Really Named His Goats ‘Max’ And ‘Bitcoin’

Bitcoin Pullback Risk Rises As Whales Resume Selling

Thiel-Backed Injects Billions In Crypto Exchange

Sequoia, Tiger Global Boost Crypto Bet With Start-up Lender Babel

Here’s How To Tell The Difference Between Bitcoin And Ethereum

In Crypto, Sometimes The Best Thing You Can Do Is Nothing

Crypto Community Remembers Hal Finney’s Contributions To Blockchain On His 65Th Birthday

DJ Khaled ft. Nas, JAY-Z & James Fauntleroy And Harmonies Rap Bitcoin Wealth

The Two Big Themes In The Crypto Market Right Now

Crypto Could Still Be In Its Infancy, Says T. Rowe Price’s CEO

Governing Body Of Louisiana Gives Bitcoin Its Nod Of Approval

Sports Athletes Getting Rich From Bitcoin

Behind Bitcoin’s Recent Slide: Imploding Bets And Forced Liquidations

Bad Omen? US Dollar And Bitcoin Are Both Slumping In A Rare Trend

Wall Street Starts To See Weakness Emerge In Bitcoin Charts

Crypto For The Long Term: What’s The Outlook?

Mix of Old, Wrong And Dubious ‘News/FUD’ Scares Rookie Investors, Fuels Crypto Selloff

Wall Street Pays Attention As Bitcoin Market Cap Nears The Valuation Of Google

Bitcoin Price Drops To $52K, Liquidating Almost $10B In Over-Leveraged Longs

Bitcoin Funding Rates Crash To Lowest Levels In 7 Months, Peak Fear?

Investors’ On-Chain Activity Hints At Bitcoin Price Cycle Top Above $166,000

This Vegan Billionaire Disrupted The Crypto Markets. Now He Wants To Tokenize Stocks

Texas Crypto Law Proposal Has One Major Flaw In Regards To Bitcoin Loans/Liens Says Caitlin Long, CEO

Black Americans Are Embracing Bitcoin To Make Up For Stolen Time

Rap Icon Nas Could Net $100M When Coinbase Lists on Nasdaq

The First Truly Native Cross-Chain DEX Is About To Go Live

Reminiscing On Past ‘Bitcoin Faucet’ Website That Gave Away 19,700 BTC For Free

Bitcoin Nears Record Before Largest U.S. Crypto Exchange Coinbase Nears $100 Billion Valuation Listing

3X As Many Crypto Figures Make It Onto Forbes 2021 Billionaires List As Last Year

Bubble Or A Drop In The Ocean? Putting Bitcoin’s $1 Trillion Milestone Into Perspective

Pension Funds And Insurance Firms Alive To Bitcoin Investment Proposal

Here’s Why April May Be The Best Month Yet For Bitcoin Price

Blockchain-Based Renewable Energy Marketplaces Gain Traction In 2021

Crypto Firms Got More Funding Last Quarter Than In All of 2020

Government-Backed Bitcoin Hash Wars Will Be The New Space Race

Lars Wood On Enhanced SAT Solvers Based Hashing Method For Bitcoin Mining

Morgan Stanley Adds Bitcoin Exposure To 12 Investment Funds

One BTC Will Be Worth A Lambo By 2022, And A Bugatti By 2023: Kraken CEO

Rocketing Bitcoin Price Provides Refuge For The Brave

Bitcoin Is 3rd Largest World Currency

Does BlockFi’s Risk Justify The Reward?

Crypto Media Runs With The Bulls As New Entrants Compete Against Established Brands

Bitcoin’s Never-Ending Bubble And Other Mysteries

The Last Dip Is The Deepest As Wife Leaves Husband For Buying More Bitcoin Raises $300 Million As Investors Find Other Ways Into Bitcoin

Crypto Kids Camp

What Is BitClout? The Social Media Experiment Sparking Controversy On Twitter

Bitcoin Searches In Turkey Spike 566% After Turkish Lira Drops 14%

Crypto Is Banned In Morocco, But Bitcoin Purchases Are Soaring

Bitcoin Can Be Sent With A Tweet As Bottlepay Twitter App Goes Live

Rise of Crypto Market’s Quiet Giants Has Big Market Implications

Canadian Property Firm Buys Bitcoin In Hopes Of Eventually Scrapping Condo Fees

Bitcoin Price Gets Fed Boost But Bond Yields Could Play Spoilsport: Analysts

Bank of America Claims It Costs Just $93 Million To Move Bitcoin’s Price By 1%

Would A US Wealth Tax Push Millionaires To Bitcoin Adoption?

NYDIG Head Says Major Firms Will Announce Bitcoin ‘Milestones’ Next Week

Signal Encrypted Messenger Now Accepts Donations In Bitcoin

Bitcoin Is Now Worth More Than Visa And Mastercard Combined

Retail Bitcoin Customers Rival Wall Street Buyers As Mania Builds

Crypto’s Rising. So Are The Stakes For Governments Everywhere

Bitcoin Falls After Weekend Rally Pushes Token To Fresh Record

Oakland A’s Major League Baseball Team Now Accepts Bitcoin For Suites

Students In Georgia Set To Be Taught About Crypto At High School

What You Need To Know About Bitcoin Now

Bitcoin Winning Streak Now At 7 Days As Fresh Stimulus Keeps Inflation Bet Alive

Bitcoin Intraday Trading Pattern Emerges As Institutions Pile In

If 60/40 Recipe Sours, Maybe Stir In Some Bitcoin

Explaining Bitcoin’s Speculative Attack On The Dollar

VIX-Like Gauge For Bitcoin Sees Its First-Ever Options Trade

A Utopian Vision Gets A Blockchain Twist In Nevada

Crypto Influencers Scramble To Recover Twitter Accounts After Suspensions

Bitcoin Breaks Through $57,000 As Risk Appetite Revives

Analyzing Bitcoin’s Network Effect

US Government To Sell 0.7501 Bitcoin Worth $38,000 At Current Prices

Pro Traders Avoid Bitcoin Longs While Cautiously Watching DXY Strengthen

Bitcoin Hits Highest Level In Two Weeks As Big-Money Bets Flow

OG Status In Crypto Is A Liability

Bridging The Bitcoin Gender Gap: Crypto Lets Everyone Access Wealth

HODLing Early Leads To Relationship Troubles? Redditors Share Their Stories

Want To Be Rich? Bitcoin’s Limited Supply Cap Means You Only Need 0.01 BTC

You Can Earn 6%, 8%, Even 12% On A Bitcoin ‘Savings Account’—Yeah, Right

Egyptians Are Buying Bitcoin Despite Prohibitive New Banking Laws

Is March Historically A Bad Month For Bitcoin?

Suze Orman: ‘I love Bitcoin’

Bitcoin Falls 4% As Fed’s Powell Sees ‘Concern’ Over Rising Bond Yields

US Retailers See Millions In Lost Sales Due To Port Congestion, Shortage Of Containers

Pandemic-Relief Aid Boosts Household Income Which Causes Artificial Economic Stimulus

YouTube Suspends CoinDesk’s Channel Over Unspecified Violations

It’s Gates Versus Musk As World’s Richest Spar Over Bitcoin

Charlie Munger Is Sure Bitcoin Will Fail To Become A Global Medium Of Exchange

Bitcoin Is Minting Thousands Of Crypto ‘Diamond Hands’ Millionaires Complete W/Laser Eyes

Federal Reserve’s Wire & ACH Systems Go Down, Visa & Mastercard Raise Fees, Meanwhile, Bitcoin Works Just Fine

Dubai’s IBC Group Pledges 100,000 Bitcoin ($4.8 Billion) 20% Of All Bitcoin, Largest So Far

Bitcoin’s Value Is All In The Eye Of The ‘Bithodler’

Bitcoin Is Hitting Record Highs. Why It’s Not Too Late To Dig For Digital Gold

$56.3K Bitcoin Price And $1Trillion Market Cap Signal BTC Is Here To Stay

Christie’s Auction House Will Now Accept Cryptocurrency

Why A Chinese New Year Bitcoin Sell-Off Did Not Happen This Year

The US Federal Reserve Will Adopt Bitcoin As A Reserve Asset

Motley Fool Adding $5M In Bitcoin To Its ‘10X Portfolio’ — Has A $500K Price Target

German Cannabis Company Hedges With Bitcoin In Case Euro Crashes

Bitcoin: What To Know Before Investing

China’s Cryptocurrency Stocks Left Behind In Bitcoin Frenzy

Bitcoin’s Epic Run Is Winning More Attention On Wall Street

Bitcoin Jumps To $50,000 As Record-Breaking Rally Accelerates

Bitcoin’s Volatility Should Burn Investors. It Hasn’t

Bitcoin’s Latest Record Run Is Less Volatile Than The 2017 Boom

Blockchain As A Replacement To The MERS (Mortgage Electronic Registration System)

The Ultimate Resource On “PriFi” Or Private Finance

Deutsche Bank To Offer Bitcoin Custody Services

BeanCoin Currency Casts Lifeline To Closed New Orleans Bars

Bitcoin Could Enter ‘Supercycle’ As Fed Balance Sheet Hits New Record High

Crypto Mogul Bets On ‘Meme Investing’ With Millions In GameStop

Iran’s Central Banks Acquires Bitcoin Even Though Lagarde Says Central Banks Will Not Hold Bitcoin

Bitcoin To Come To America’s Oldest Bank, BNY Mellon

Tesla’s Bitcoin-Equals-Cash View Isn’t Shared By All Crypto Owners

How A Lawsuit Against The IRS Is Trying To Expand Privacy For Crypto Users

Apple Should Launch Own Crypto Exchange, RBC Analyst Says

Bitcoin Hits $43K All-Time High As Tesla Invests $1.5 Billion In BTC

Bitcoin Bounces Off Top of Recent Price Range

Top Fiat Currencies By Market Capitalization VS Bitcoin

Bitcoin Eyes $50K Less Than A Month After BTC Price Broke Its 2017 All-Time High

Investors Piling Into Overvalued Crypto Funds Risk A Painful Exit

Parents Should Be Aware Of Their Children’s Crypto Tax Liabilities

Miami Mayor Says City Employees Should Be Able To Take Their Salaries In Bitcoin

Bitcoiners Get Last Laugh As IBM’s “Blockchain Not Bitcoin” Effort Goes Belly-up

Bitcoin Accounts Offer 3-12% Rates In A Low-Interest World

Analyst Says Bitcoin Price Sell-Off May Occur As Chinese New Year Approaches

Why The Crypto World Needs To Build An Amazon Of Its Own

Tor Project’s Crypto Donations Increased 23% In 2020

Social Trading Platform eToro Ended 2020 With $600M In Revenue

Bitcoin Billionaire Set To Run For California Governor

GameStop Investing Craze ‘Proof of Concept’ For Bitcoin Success

Bitcoin Entrepreneurs Install Mining Rigs In Cars. Will Trucks And Tractor Trailers Be Next?

Harvard, Yale, Brown Endowments Have Been Buying Bitcoin For At Least A Year

Bitcoin Return To $40,000 In Doubt As Flows To Key Fund Slow

Ultimate Resource For Leading Non-Profits Focused On Policy Issues Facing Cryptocurrencies

Regulate Cryptocurrencies? Not Yet

Check Out These Cryptocurrency Clubs And Bitcoin Groups!

Blockchain Brings Unicorns To Millennials

Crypto-Industry Prepares For Onslaught Of Public Listings

Bitcoin Core Lead Maintainer Steps Back, Encourages Decentralization

Here Are Very Bitcoiny Ways To Get Bitcoin Exposure

To Understand Bitcoin, Just Think of It As A Faith-Based Asset

Cryptos Won’t Work As Actual Currencies, UBS Economist Says

Older Investors Are Getting Into Crypto, New Survey Finds

Access Denied: Banks Seem Prone To Cryptophobia Despite Growing Adoption

Pro Traders Buy The Dip As Bulls Address A Trifecta Of FUD News Announcements

Andreas Antonopoulos And Others Debunk Bitcoin Double-Spend FUD

New Bitcoin Investors Explain Why They’re Buying At Record Prices

When Crypto And Traditional Investors Forget Fundamentals, The Market Is Broken

First Hyperledger-based Cryptocurrency Explodes 486% Overnight On Bittrex BTC Listing

Bitcoin Steady As Analysts Say Getting Back To $40,000 Is Key

Coinbase, MEVP Invest In Crypto-Asset Startup Rain

Synthetic Dreams: Wrapped Crypto Assets Gain Traction Amid Surging Market

Secure Bitcoin Self-Custody: Balancing Safety And Ease Of Use

Voyager Crypto App Review

UBS (A Totally Corrupt And Criminal Bank) Warns Clients Crypto Prices Can Actually Go To Zero

Bitcoin Swings Undermine CFO Case For Converting Cash To Crypto

CoinLab Cuts Deal With Mt. Gox Trustee Over Bitcoin Claims

Bitcoin Slides Under $35K Despite Biden Unveiling $1.9 Trillion Stimulus

Bitcoin Refuses To ‘Die’ As BTC Price Hits $40K Just Three Days After Crash

Ex-Ripple CTO Can’t Remember Password To Access $240M In Bitcoin

Financial Advisers Are Betting On Bitcoin As A Hedge

ECB President Christine Lagarde (French Convict) Says, Bitcoin Enables “Funny Business.”

German Police Shut Down Darknet Marketplace That Traded Bitcoin

Bitcoin Miner That’s Risen 1,400% Says More Regulation Is Needed

Bitcoin Rebounds While Leaving Everyone In Dark On True Worth

UK Treasury Calls For Feedback On Approach To Cryptocurrency And Stablecoin Regulation

What Crypto Users Need Know About Changes At The SEC

Where Does This 28% Bitcoin Price Drop Rank In History? Not Even In The Top 5

Seven Times That US Regulators Stepped Into Crypto In 2020

Retail Has Arrived As Paypal Clears $242M In Crypto Sales Nearly Double The Previous Record

Bitcoin’s Slide Dents Price Momentum That Dwarfed Everything

Does Bitcoin Boom Mean ‘Better Gold’ Or Bigger Bubble?

Bitcoin Whales Are Profiting As ‘Weak Hands’ Sell BTC After Price Correction

Crypto User Recovers Long-Lost Private Keys To Access $4M In Bitcoin

The Case For And Against Investing In Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s Wild Weekends Turn Efficient Market Theory Inside Out

Mega-Bullish News For Bitcoin As Elon Musk Says, “Pay Me In Bitcoin” And Biden Says, “Ignore Budget Deficits”!

Bitcoin Price Briefly Surpasses Market Cap Of Tencent

Broker Touts Exotic Bitcoin Bet To Squeeze Income From Crypto

Broker Touts Exotic Bitcoin Bet To Squeeze Income From Crypto

Tesla’s Crypto-Friendly CEO Is Now The Richest Man In The World

Crypto Market Cap Breaks $1 Trillion Following Jaw-Dropping Rally

Gamblers Could Use Bitcoin At Slot Machines With New Patent

Crypto Users Donate $400K To Julian Assange Defense As Mexico Proposes Asylum

Grayscale Ethereum Trust Fell 22% Despite Rally In Holdings

Bitcoin’s Bulls Should Fear Its Other Scarcity Problem

Ether Follows Bitcoin To Record High Amid Dizzying Crypto Rally

Retail Investors Are Largely Uninvolved As Bitcoin Price Chases $40K

Bitcoin Breaches $34,000 As Rally Extends Into New Year

Social Media Interest In Bitcoin Hits All-Time High

Bitcoin Price Quickly Climbs To $31K, Liquidating $100M Of Shorts

How Massive Bitcoin Buyer Activity On Coinbase Propelled BTC Price Past $32K

FinCEN Wants US Citizens To Disclose Offshore Crypto Holdings of $10K+

Governments Will Start To Hodl Bitcoin In 2021

Crypto-Linked Stocks Extend Rally That Produced 400% Gains

‘Bitcoin Liquidity Crisis’ — BTC Is Becoming Harder To Buy On Exchanges, Data Shows

Bitcoin Looks To Gain Traction In Payments

BTC Market Cap Now Over Half A Trillion Dollars. Major Weekly Candle Closed!!

Elon Musk And Satoshi Nakamoto Making Millionaires At Record Pace

Binance Enables SegWit Support For Bitcoin Deposits As Adoption Grows

Santoshi Nakamoto Delivers $24.5K Christmas Gift With Another New All-Time High

Bitcoin’s Rally Has Already Outlasted 2017’s Epic Run

Gifting Crypto To Loved Ones This Holiday? Educate Them First

Scaramucci’s SkyBridge Files With SEC To Launch Bitcoin Fund

Samsung Integrates Bitcoin Wallets And Exchange Into Galaxy Phones

HTC Smartphone Will Run A Full Bitcoin Node (#GotBitcoin?)

HTC’s New 5G Router Can Host A Full Bitcoin Node

Bitcoin Miners Are Heating Homes Free of Charge

Bitcoin Miners Will Someday Be Incorporated Into Household Appliances

Musk Inquires About Moving ‘Large Transactions’ To Bitcoin

How To Invest In Bitcoin: It Can Be Easy, But Watch Out For Fees

Megan Thee Stallion Gives Away $1 Million In Bitcoin

CoinFLEX Sets Up Short-Term Lending Facility For Crypto Traders

Wall Street Quants Pounce On Crytpo Industry And Some Are Not Sure What To Make Of It

Bitcoin Shortage As Wall Street FOMO Turns BTC Whales Into ‘Plankton’

Bitcoin Tops $22,000 And Strategists Say Rally Has Further To Go

Why Bitcoin Is Overpriced by More Than 50%

Kraken Exchange Will Integrate Bitcoin’s Lightning Network In 2021

New To Bitcoin? Stay Safe And Avoid These Common Scams

Andreas M. Antonopoulos And Simon Dixon Say Don’t Buy Bitcoin!

Famous Former Bitcoin Critics Who Conceded In 2020

Jim Cramer Bought Bitcoin While ‘Off Nicely From The Top’ In $17,000S

The Wealthy Are Jumping Into Bitcoin As Stigma Around Crypto Fades

WordPress Adds Official Ethereum Ad Plugin

France Moves To Ban Anonymous Crypto Accounts To Prevent Money Laundering

10 Predictions For 2021: China, Bitcoin, Taxes, Stablecoins And More

Movie Based On Darknet Market Silk Road Premiering In February

Crypto Funds Have Seen Record Investment Inflow In Recent Weeks

US Gov Is Bitcoin’s Last Remaining Adversary, Says Messari Founder

$1,200 US Stimulus Check Is Now Worth Almost $4,000 If Invested In Bitcoin

German Bank Launches Crypto Fund Covering Portfolio Of Digital Assets

World Governments Agree On Importance Of Crypto Regulation At G-7 Meeting

Why Some Investors Get Bitcoin So Wrong, And What That Says About Its Strengths

It’s Not About Data Ownership, It’s About Data Control, EFF Director Says

‘It Will Send BTC’ — On-Chain Analyst Says Bitcoin Hodlers Are Only Getting Stronger

Bitcoin Arrives On Wall Street: S&P Dow Jones Launching Crypto Indexes In 2021

Audio Streaming Giant Spotify Is Looking Into Crypto Payments

BlackRock (Assets Under Management $7.4 Trillion) CEO: Bitcoin Has Caught Our Attention

Bitcoin Moves $500K Around The Globe Every Second, Says Samson Mow

Pomp Talks Shark Tank’s Kevin O’leary Into Buying ‘A Little More’ Bitcoin

Bitcoin Is The Tulipmania That Refuses To Die

Ultimate Resource On Ethereum 2.0

Biden Should Integrate Bitcoin Into Us Financial System, Says Niall Ferguson

Bitcoin Is Winning The Monetary Revolution

Cash Is Trash, Dump Gold, Buy Bitcoin!

Bitcoin Price Sets New Record High Above $19,783

You Call That A Record? Bitcoin’s November Gains Are 3x Stock Market’s

Bitcoin Fights Back With Power, Speed and Millions of Users

Guggenheim Fund ($295 Billion Assets Under Management) Reserves Right To Put Up To 10% In Bitcoin Trust!

Exchanges Outdo Auctions For Governments Cashing In Criminal Crypto, Says Exec

Coinbase CEO: Trump Administration May ‘Rush Out’ Burdensome Crypto Wallet Rules

Bitcoin Plunges Along With Other Coins Providing For A Major Black Friday Sale Opportunity

The Most Bullish Bitcoin Arguments For Your Thanksgiving Table

‘Bitcoin Tuesday’ To Become One Of The Largest-Ever Crypto Donation Events

World’s First 24/7 Crypto Call-In Station!!!

Bitcoin Trades Again Near Record, Driven By New Group Of Buyers

Friendliest Of Them All? These Could Be The Best Countries For Crypto

Bitcoin Price Doubles Since The Halving, With Just 3.4M Bitcoin Left For Buyers

First Company-Sponsored Bitcoin Retirement Plans Launched In US

Poker Players Are Enhancing Winnings By Cashing Out In Bitcoin

Crypto-Friendly Brooks Gets Nod To Serve 5-Year Term Leading Bank Regulator

The Bitcoin Comeback: Is Crypto Finally Going Mainstream?

The Dark Future Where Payments Are Politicized And Bitcoin Wins

Mexico’s 3rd Richest Man Reveals BTC Holdings As Bitcoin Breaches $18,000

Ultimate Resource On Mike Novogratz And Galaxy Digital’s Bitcoin News

Bitcoin’s Gunning For A Record And No One’s Talking About It

Simple Steps To Keep Your Crypto Safe

US Company Now Lets Travelers Pay For Passports With Bitcoin

Billionaire Hedge Fund Investor Stanley Druckenmiller Says He Owns Bitcoin In CNBC Interview

China’s UnionPay And Korea’s Danal To Launch Crypto-Supporting Digital Card #GotBitcoin

Bitcoin Is Back Trading Near Three-Year Highs

Bitcoin Transaction Fees Rise To 28-Month High As Hashrate Drops Amid Price Rally

Market Is Proving Bitcoin Is ‘Ultimate Safe Haven’ — Anthony Pompliano

3 Reasons Why Bitcoin Price Suddenly Dropping Below $13,000 Isn’t Bearish

Bitcoin Resurgence Leaves Institutional Acceptance Unanswered

Bitcoin’s Rivalry With Gold Plus Millennial Interest Gives It ‘Considerable’ Upside Potential: JPMorgan

WordPress Content Can Now Be Timestamped On Ethereum

PayPal To Offer Crypto Payments Starting In 2021 (A-Z) (#GotBitcoin?)

As Bitcoin Approaches $13,000 It Breaks Correlation With Equities

Crypto M&A Surges Past 2019 Total As Rest of World Eclipses U.S. (#GotBitcoin?)

How HBCUs Are Prepping Black Students For Blockchain Careers

Why Every US Congressman Just Got Sent Some ‘American’ Bitcoin

CME Sounding Out Crypto Traders To Gauge Market Demand For Ether Futures, Options

Caitlin Long On Bitcoin, Blockchain And Rehypothecation (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Drops To $10,446.83 As CFTC Charges BitMex With Illegally Operating Derivatives Exchange

BitcoinACKs Lets You Track Bitcoin Development And Pay Coders For Their Work

One Of Hal Finney’s Lost Contributions To Bitcoin Core To Be ‘Resurrected’ (#GotBitcoin?)

Cross-chain Money Markets, Latest Attempt To Bring Liquidity To DeFi

Memes Mean Mad Money. Those Silly Defi Memes, They’re Really Important (#GotBitcoin?)

Bennie Overton’s Story About Our Corrupt U.S. Judicial, Global Financial Monetary System And Bitcoin

Stop Fucking Around With Public Token Airdrops In The United States (#GotBitcoin?)

Mad Money’s Jim Cramer Will Invest 1% Of Net Worth In Bitcoin Says, “Gold Is Dangerous”

State-by-state Licensing For Crypto And Payments Firms In The Us Just Got Much Easier (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin (BTC) Ranks As World 6Th Largest Currency

Pomp Claims He Convinced Jim Cramer To Buy Bitcoin

Traditional Investors View Bitcoin As If It Were A Technology Stock

Mastercard Releases Platform Enabling Central Banks To Test Digital Currencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Being Black On Wall Street. Top Black Executives Speak Out About Racism (#GotBitcoin?)

Tesla And Bitcoin Are The Most Popular Assets On TradingView (#GotBitcoin?)

From COVID Generation To Crypto Generation (#GotBitcoin?)

Right-Winger Tucker Carlson Causes Grayscale Investments To Pull Bitcoin Ads

Bitcoin Has Lost Its Way: Here’s How To Return To Crypto’s Subversive Roots

Cross Chain Is Here: NEO, ONT, Cosmos And NEAR Launch Interoperability Protocols (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Trading Products Enter The Mainstream With A Number Of Inherent Advantages (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Goes Mainstream With TV, Newspaper Ads (#GotBitcoin?)

A Guarded Generation: How Millennials View Money And Investing (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain-Backed Social Media Brings More Choice For Users

California Moves Forward With Digital Asset Bill (#GotBitcoin?)

Walmart Adds Crypto Cashback Through Shopping Loyalty Platform StormX (#GotBitcoin?)

Congressman Tom Emmer To Lead First-Ever Crypto Town Hall (#GotBitcoin?)

Why It’s Time To Pay Attention To Mexico’s Booming Crypto Market (#GotBitcoin?)

The Assets That Matter Most In Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

Ultimate Resource On Non-Fungible Tokens

Bitcoin Community Highlights Double-Standard Applied Deutsche Bank Epstein Scandal

Blockchain Makes Strides In Diversity. However, Traditional Tech Industry Not-S0-Much (#GotBitcoin?)

An Israeli Blockchain Startup Claims It’s Invented An ‘Undo’ Button For BTC Transactions

After Years of Resistance, BitPay Adopts SegWit For Cheaper Bitcoin Transactions

US Appeals Court Allows Warrantless Search of Blockchain, Exchange Data

Central Bank Rate Cuts Mean ‘World Has Gone Zimbabwe’

This Researcher Says Bitcoin’s Elliptic Curve Could Have A Secret Backdoor

China Discovers 4% Of Its Reserves Or 83 Tons Of It’s Gold Bars Are Fake (#GotBitcoin?)

Former Legg Mason Star Bill Miller And Bloomberg Are Optimistic About Bitcoin’s Future

Yield Chasers Are Yield Farming In Crypto-Currencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Australia Post Office Now Lets Customers Buy Bitcoin At Over 3,500 Outlets

Anomaly On Bitcoin Sidechain Results In Brief Security Lapse

SEC And DOJ Charges Lobbying Kingpin Jack Abramoff And Associate For Money Laundering

Veteran Commodities Trader Chris Hehmeyer Goes All In On Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

Activists Document Police Misconduct Using Decentralized Protocol (#GotBitcoin?)

Supposedly, PayPal, Venmo To Roll Out Crypto Buying And Selling (#GotBitcoin?)

Industry Leaders Launch PayID, The Universal ID For Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Quant Fund Debuts With $23M In Assets, $2.3B In Trades (#GotBitcoin?)

The Queens Politician Who Wants To Give New Yorkers Their Own Crypto

Why Does The SEC Want To Run Bitcoin And Ethereum Nodes?

Trump Orders Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin To Destroy Bitcoin Just Like They Destroyed The Traditional Economy

US Drug Agency Failed To Properly Supervise Agent Who Stole $700,000 In Bitcoin In 2015

Layer 2 Will Make Bitcoin As Easy To Use As The Dollar, Says Kraken CEO

Bootstrapping Mobile Mesh Networks With Bitcoin Lightning

Nevermind Coinbase — Big Brother Is Already Watching Your Coins (#GotBitcoin?)

BitPay’s Prepaid Mastercard Launches In US to Make Crypto Accessible (#GotBitcoin?)

Germany’s Deutsche Borse Exchange To List New Bitcoin Exchange-Traded Product

‘Bitcoin Billionaires’ Movie To Tell Winklevoss Bros’ Crypto Story

US Pentagon Created A War Game To Fight The Establishment With BTC (#GotBitcoin?)

JPMorgan Provides Banking Services To Crypto Exchanges Coinbase And Gemini (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Advocates Cry Foul As US Fed Buying ETFs For The First Time

Final Block Mined Before Halving Contained Reminder of BTC’s Origins (#GotBitcoin?)

Meet Brian Klein, Crypto’s Own ‘High-Stakes’ Trial Attorney (#GotBitcoin?)

3 Reasons For The Bitcoin Price ‘Halving Dump’ From $10K To $8.1K

Bitcoin Outlives And Outlasts Naysayers And First Website That Declared It Dead Back In 2010

Hedge Fund Pioneer Turns Bullish On Bitcoin Amid ‘Unprecedented’ Monetary Inflation

Antonopoulos: Chainalysis Is Helping World’s Worst Dictators & Regimes (#GotBitcoin?)

Survey Shows Many BTC Holders Use Hardware Wallet, Have Backup Keys (#GotBitcoin?)

Iran Ditches The Rial Amid Hyperinflation As Localbitcoins Seem To Trade Near $35K

Buffett ‘Killed His Reputation’ by Being Stupid About BTC, Says Max Keiser (#GotBitcoin?)

Meltem Demirors: “Bitcoin Is Not A F*Cking Systemic Hedge If You Hold Your Bitcoin At A Financial Institution”

Blockfolio Quietly Patches Years-Old Security Hole That Exposed Source Code (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Won As Store of Value In Coronavirus Crisis — Hedge Fund CEO

Decentralized VPN Gaining Steam At 100,000 Users Worldwide (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Exchange Offers Credit Lines so Institutions Can Trade Now, Pay Later (#GotBitcoin?)

Zoom Develops A Cryptocurrency Paywall To Reward Creators Video Conferencing Sessions (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Startup And Major Bitcoin Cash Partner To Shut Down After 6-Year Run

Open Interest In CME Bitcoin Futures Rises 70% As Institutions Return To Market

Square’s Users Can Route Stimulus Payments To BTC-Friendly Cash App

$1.1 Billion BTC Transaction For Only $0.68 Demonstrates Bitcoin’s Advantage Over Banks

Bitcoin Could Become Like ‘Prison Cigarettes’ Amid Deepening Financial Crisis

Bitcoin Holds Value As US Debt Reaches An Unfathomable $24 Trillion

How To Get Money (Crypto-currency) To People In An Emergency, Fast

US Intelligence To Study What Would Happen If U.S. Dollar Lost Its Status As World’s Reserve Currency (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Miner Manufacturers Mark Down Prices Ahead of Halving

Privacy-Oriented Browsers Gain Traction (#GotBitcoin?)

‘Breakthrough’ As Lightning Uses Web’s Forgotten Payment Code (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Starts Quarter With Price Down Just 10% YTD vs U.S. Stock’s Worst Quarter Since 2008

Bitcoin Enthusiasts, Liberal Lawmakers Cheer A Fed-Backed Digital Dollar

Crypto-Friendly Bank Revolut Launches In The US (#GotBitcoin?)

The CFTC Just Defined What ‘Actual Delivery’ of Crypto Should Look Like (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto CEO Compares US Dollar To Onecoin Scam As Fed Keeps Printing (#GotBitcoin?)

Stuck In Quarantine? Become A Blockchain Expert With These Online Courses (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin, Not Governments Will Save the World After Crisis, Tim Draper Says

Crypto Analyst Accused of Photoshopping Trade Screenshots (#GotBitcoin?)

QE4 Begins: Fed Cuts Rates, Buys $700B In Bonds; Bitcoin Rallies 7.7%

Mike Novogratz And Andreas Antonopoulos On The Bitcoin Crash

Amid Market Downturn, Number of People Owning 1 BTC Hits New Record (#GotBitcoin?)

Fatburger And Others Feed $30 Million Into Ethereum For New Bond Offering (#GotBitcoin?)

Pornhub Will Integrate PumaPay Recurring Subscription Crypto Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

Intel SGX Vulnerability Discovered, Cryptocurrency Keys Threatened

Bitcoin’s Plunge Due To Manipulation, Traditional Markets Falling or PlusToken Dumping?

Countries That First Outlawed Crypto But Then Embraced It (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Maintains Gains As Global Equities Slide, US Yield Hits Record Lows

HTC’s New 5G Router Can Host A Full Bitcoin Node

India Supreme Court Lifts RBI Ban On Banks Servicing Crypto Firms (#GotBitcoin?)

Analyst Claims 98% of Mining Rigs Fail to Verify Transactions (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain Storage Offers Security, Data Transparency And immutability. Get Over it!

Black Americans & Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

Coinbase Wallet Now Allows To Send Crypto Through Usernames (#GotBitcoin)

New ‘Simpsons’ Episode Features Jim Parsons Giving A Crypto Explainer For The Masses (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto-currency Founder Met With Warren Buffett For Charity Lunch (#GotBitcoin?)

Witches Love Bitcoin

Bitcoin’s Potential To Benefit The African And African-American Community

Coinbase Becomes Direct Visa Card Issuer With Principal Membership

Bitcoin Achieves Major Milestone With Half A Billion Transactions Confirmed

Jill Carlson, Meltem Demirors Back $3.3M Round For Non-Custodial Settlement Protocol Arwen

Crypto Companies Adopt Features Similar To Banks (Only Better) To Drive Growth (#GotBitcoin?)

Top Graphics Cards That Will Turn A Crypto Mining Profit (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Usage Among Merchants Is Up, According To Data From Coinbase And BitPay

Top 10 Books Recommended by Crypto (#Bitcoin) Thought Leaders

Twitter Adds Bitcoin Emoji, Jack Dorsey Suggests Unicode Does The Same

Bitcoiners Are Now Into Fasting. Read This Article To Find Out Why

You Can Now Donate Bitcoin Or Fiat To Show Your Support For All Of Our Valuable Content

2019’s Top 10 Institutional Actors In Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

What Does Twitter’s New Decentralized Initiative Mean? (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto-Friendly Silvergate Bank Goes Public On New York Stock Exchange (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Best Q1 Since 2013 To ‘Escalate’ If $9.5K Is Broken

Billionaire Investor Tim Draper: If You’re a Millennial, Buy Bitcoin

What Are Lightning Wallets Doing To Help Onboard New Users? (#GotBitcoin?)

If You Missed Out On Investing In Amazon, Bitcoin Might Be A Second Chance For You (#GotBitcoin?)

2020 And Beyond: Bitcoin’s Potential Protocol (Privacy And Scalability) Upgrades (#GotBitcoin?)

US Deficit Will Be At Least 6 Times Bitcoin Market Cap — Every Year (#GotBitcoin?)

Central Banks Warm To Issuing Digital Currencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Meet The Crypto Angel Investor Running For Congress In Nevada (#GotBitcoin?)

Introducing BTCPay Vault – Use Any Hardware Wallet With BTCPay And Its Full Node (#GotBitcoin?)

How Not To Lose Your Coins In 2020: Alternative Recovery Methods (#GotBitcoin?)

H.R.5635 – Virtual Currency Tax Fairness Act of 2020 ($200.00 Limit) 116th Congress (2019-2020)

Adam Back On Satoshi Emails, Privacy Concerns And Bitcoin’s Early Days

The Prospect of Using Bitcoin To Build A New International Monetary System Is Getting Real

How To Raise Funds For Australia Wildfire Relief Efforts (Using Bitcoin And/Or Fiat )

Former Regulator Known As ‘Crypto Dad’ To Launch Digital-Dollar Think Tank (#GotBitcoin?)

Currency ‘Cold War’ Takes Center Stage At Pre-Davos Crypto Confab (#GotBitcoin?)

A Blockchain-Secured Home Security Camera Won Innovation Awards At CES 2020 Las Vegas

Bitcoin’s Had A Sensational 11 Years (#GotBitcoin?)

Sergey Nazarov And The Creation Of A Decentralized Network Of Oracles

Google Suspends MetaMask From Its Play App Store, Citing “Deceptive Services”

Christmas Shopping: Where To Buy With Crypto This Festive Season

At 8,990,000% Gains, Bitcoin Dwarfs All Other Investments This Decade

Coinbase CEO Armstrong Wins Patent For Tech Allowing Users To Email Bitcoin

Bitcoin Has Got Society To Think About The Nature Of Money

How DeFi Goes Mainstream In 2020: Focus On Usability (#GotBitcoin?)

Dissidents And Activists Have A Lot To Gain From Bitcoin, If Only They Knew It (#GotBitcoin?)

At A Refugee Camp In Iraq, A 16-Year-Old Syrian Is Teaching Crypto Basics

Bitclub Scheme Busted In The US, Promising High Returns From Mining

Bitcoin Advertised On French National TV

Germany: New Proposed Law Would Legalize Banks Holding Bitcoin

How To Earn And Spend Bitcoin On Black Friday 2019

The Ultimate List of Bitcoin Developments And Accomplishments

Charities Put A Bitcoin Twist On Giving Tuesday

Family Offices Finally Accept The Benefits of Investing In Bitcoin

An Army Of Bitcoin Devs Is Battle-Testing Upgrades To Privacy And Scaling

Bitcoin ‘Carry Trade’ Can Net Annual Gains With Little Risk, Says PlanB

Max Keiser: Bitcoin’s ‘Self-Settlement’ Is A Revolution Against Dollar

Blockchain Can And Will Replace The IRS

China Seizes The Blockchain Opportunity. How Should The US Respond? (#GotBitcoin?)

Jack Dorsey: You Can Buy A Fraction Of Berkshire Stock Or ‘Stack Sats’

Bitcoin Price Skyrockets $500 In Minutes As Bakkt BTC Contracts Hit Highs

Bitcoin’s Irreversibility Challenges International Private Law: Legal Scholar

Bitcoin Has Already Reached 40% Of Average Fiat Currency Lifespan

Yes, Even Bitcoin HODLers Can Lose Money In The Long-Term: Here’s How (#GotBitcoin?)

Unicef To Accept Donations In Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Former Prosecutor Asked To “Shut Down Bitcoin” And Is Now Face Of Crypto VC Investing (#GotBitcoin?)

Switzerland’s ‘Crypto Valley’ Is Bringing Blockchain To Zurich

Next Bitcoin Halving May Not Lead To Bull Market, Says Bitmain CEO

Tim Draper Bets On Unstoppable Domain’s .Crypto Domain Registry To Replace Wallet Addresses (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Developer Amir Taaki, “We Can Crash National Economies” (#GotBitcoin?)

Veteran Crypto And Stocks Trader Shares 6 Ways To Invest And Get Rich

Is Chainlink Blazing A Trail Independent Of Bitcoin?

Nearly $10 Billion In BTC Is Held In Wallets Of 8 Crypto Exchanges (#GotBitcoin?)

SEC Enters Settlement Talks With Alleged Fraudulent Firm Veritaseum (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockstream’s Samson Mow: Bitcoin’s Block Size Already ‘Too Big’

Attorneys Seek Bank Of Ireland Execs’ Testimony Against OneCoin Scammer (#GotBitcoin?)

OpenLibra Plans To Launch Permissionless Fork Of Facebook’s Stablecoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Tiny $217 Options Trade On Bitcoin Blockchain Could Be Wall Street’s Death Knell (#GotBitcoin?)

Class Action Accuses Tether And Bitfinex Of Market Manipulation (#GotBitcoin?)

Sharia Goldbugs: How ISIS Created A Currency For World Domination (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Eyes Demand As Hong Kong Protestors Announce Bank Run (#GotBitcoin?)

How To Securely Transfer Crypto To Your Heirs

‘Gold-Backed’ Crypto Token Promoter Karatbars Investigated By Florida Regulators (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto News From The Spanish-Speaking World (#GotBitcoin?)

Financial Services Giant Morningstar To Offer Ratings For Crypto Assets (#GotBitcoin?)

‘Gold-Backed’ Crypto Token Promoter Karatbars Investigated By Florida Regulators (#GotBitcoin?)

The Original Sins Of Cryptocurrencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Is The Fraud? JPMorgan Metals Desk Fixed Gold Prices For Years (#GotBitcoin?)

Israeli Startup That Allows Offline Crypto Transactions Secures $4M (#GotBitcoin?)

[PSA] Non-genuine Trezor One Devices Spotted (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Stronger Than Ever But No One Seems To Care: Google Trends (#GotBitcoin?)

First-Ever SEC-Qualified Token Offering In US Raises $23 Million (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Prove A Whole Blockchain With One Math Problem – Really

Crypto Mining Supply Fails To Meet Market Demand In Q2: TokenInsight

$2 Billion Lost In Mt. Gox Bitcoin Hack Can Be Recovered, Lawyer Claims (#GotBitcoin?)

Fed Chair Says Agency Monitoring Crypto But Not Developing Its Own (#GotBitcoin?)

Wesley Snipes Is Launching A Tokenized $25 Million Movie Fund (#GotBitcoin?)

Mystery 94K BTC Transaction Becomes Richest Non-Exchange Address (#GotBitcoin?)

A Crypto Fix For A Broken International Monetary System (#GotBitcoin?)

Four Out Of Five Top Bitcoin QR Code Generators Are Scams: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

Waves Platform And The Abyss To Jointly Launch Blockchain-Based Games Marketplace (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitmain Ramps Up Power And Efficiency With New Bitcoin Mining Machine (#GotBitcoin?)

Ledger Live Now Supports Over 1,250 Ethereum-Based ERC-20 Tokens (#GotBitcoin?)

Miss Finland: Bitcoin’s Risk Keeps Most Women Away From Cryptocurrency (#GotBitcoin?)

Artist Akon Loves BTC And Says, “It’s Controlled By The People” (#GotBitcoin?)

Ledger Live Now Supports Over 1,250 Ethereum-Based ERC-20 Tokens (#GotBitcoin?)

Co-Founder Of LinkedIn Presents Crypto Rap Video: Hamilton Vs. Satoshi (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Insurance Market To Grow, Lloyd’s Of London And Aon To Lead (#GotBitcoin?)

No ‘AltSeason’ Until Bitcoin Breaks $20K, Says Hedge Fund Manager (#GotBitcoin?)

NSA Working To Develop Quantum-Resistant Cryptocurrency: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

Custody Provider Legacy Trust Launches Crypto Pension Plan (#GotBitcoin?)

Vaneck, SolidX To Offer Limited Bitcoin ETF For Institutions Via Exemption (#GotBitcoin?)

Russell Okung: From NFL Superstar To Bitcoin Educator In 2 Years (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Miners Made $14 Billion To Date Securing The Network (#GotBitcoin?)

Why Does Amazon Want To Hire Blockchain Experts For Its Ads Division?

Argentina’s Economy Is In A Technical Default (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain-Based Fractional Ownership Used To Sell High-End Art (#GotBitcoin?)

Portugal Tax Authority: Bitcoin Trading And Payments Are Tax-Free (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin ‘Failed Safe Haven Test’ After 7% Drop, Peter Schiff Gloats (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Dev Reveals Multisig UI Teaser For Hardware Wallets, Full Nodes (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Price: $10K Holds For Now As 50% Of CME Futures Set To Expire (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Realized Market Cap Hits $100 Billion For The First Time (#GotBitcoin?)

Stablecoins Begin To Look Beyond The Dollar (#GotBitcoin?)

Bank Of England Governor: Libra-Like Currency Could Replace US Dollar (#GotBitcoin?)

Binance Reveals ‘Venus’ — Its Own Project To Rival Facebook’s Libra (#GotBitcoin?)

The Real Benefits Of Blockchain Are Here. They’re Being Ignored (#GotBitcoin?)

CommBank Develops Blockchain Market To Boost Biodiversity (#GotBitcoin?)

SEC Approves Blockchain Tech Startup Securitize To Record Stock Transfers (#GotBitcoin?)

SegWit Creator Introduces New Language For Bitcoin Smart Contracts (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Earn Bitcoin Rewards For Postmates Purchases (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Price ‘Will Struggle’ In Big Financial Crisis, Says Investor (#GotBitcoin?)

Fidelity Charitable Received Over $100M In Crypto Donations Since 2015 (#GotBitcoin?)

Would Blockchain Better Protect User Data Than FaceApp? Experts Answer (#GotBitcoin?)

Just The Existence Of Bitcoin Impacts Monetary Policy (#GotBitcoin?)

What Are The Biggest Alleged Crypto Heists And How Much Was Stolen? (#GotBitcoin?)

IRS To Cryptocurrency Owners: Come Clean, Or Else!

Coinbase Accidentally Saves Unencrypted Passwords Of 3,420 Customers (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Is A ‘Chaos Hedge, Or Schmuck Insurance‘ (#GotBitcoin?)

Bakkt Announces September 23 Launch Of Futures And Custody

Coinbase CEO: Institutions Depositing $200-400M Into Crypto Per Week (#GotBitcoin?)

Researchers Find Monero Mining Malware That Hides From Task Manager (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Dusting Attack Affects Nearly 300,000 Addresses (#GotBitcoin?)

A Case For Bitcoin As Recession Hedge In A Diversified Investment Portfolio (#GotBitcoin?)

SEC Guidance Gives Ammo To Lawsuit Claiming XRP Is Unregistered Security (#GotBitcoin?)

15 Countries To Develop Crypto Transaction Tracking System: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

US Department Of Commerce Offering 6-Figure Salary To Crypto Expert (#GotBitcoin?)

Mastercard Is Building A Team To Develop Crypto, Wallet Projects (#GotBitcoin?)

Canadian Bitcoin Educator Scams The Scammer And Donates Proceeds (#GotBitcoin?)

Amazon Wants To Build A Blockchain For Ads, New Job Listing Shows (#GotBitcoin?)

Shield Bitcoin Wallets From Theft Via Time Delay (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockstream Launches Bitcoin Mining Farm With Fidelity As Early Customer (#GotBitcoin?)

Commerzbank Tests Blockchain Machine To Machine Payments With Daimler (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Historical Returns Look Very Attractive As Online Banks Lower Payouts On Savings Accounts (#GotBitcoin?)

Man Takes Bitcoin Miner Seller To Tribunal Over Electricity Bill And Wins (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Computing Power Sets Record As Over 100K New Miners Go Online (#GotBitcoin?)

Walmart Coin And Libra Perform Major Public Relations For Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Judge Says Buying Bitcoin Via Credit Card Not Necessarily A Cash Advance (#GotBitcoin?)

Poll: If You’re A Stockowner Or Crypto-Currency Holder. What Will You Do When The Recession Comes?

1 In 5 Crypto Holders Are Women, New Report Reveals (#GotBitcoin?)

Beating Bakkt, Ledgerx Is First To Launch ‘Physical’ Bitcoin Futures In Us (#GotBitcoin?)

Facebook Warns Investors That Libra Stablecoin May Never Launch (#GotBitcoin?)

Government Money Printing Is ‘Rocket Fuel’ For Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin-Friendly Square Cash App Stock Price Up 56% In 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

Safeway Shoppers Can Now Get Bitcoin Back As Change At 894 US Stores (#GotBitcoin?)

TD Ameritrade CEO: There’s ‘Heightened Interest Again’ With Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Venezuela Sets New Bitcoin Volume Record Thanks To 10,000,000% Inflation (#GotBitcoin?)

Newegg Adds Bitcoin Payment Option To 73 More Countries (#GotBitcoin?)

China’s Schizophrenic Relationship With Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

More Companies Build Products Around Crypto Hardware Wallets (#GotBitcoin?)

Bakkt Is Scheduled To Start Testing Its Bitcoin Futures Contracts Today (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Network Now 8 Times More Powerful Than It Was At $20K Price (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Exchange BitMEX Under Investigation By CFTC: Bloomberg (#GotBitcoin?)

“Bitcoin An ‘Unstoppable Force,” Says US Congressman At Crypto Hearing (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Network Is Moving $3 Billion Daily, Up 210% Since April (#GotBitcoin?)

Cryptocurrency Startups Get Partial Green Light From Washington

Fundstrat’s Tom Lee: Bitcoin Pullback Is Healthy, Fewer Searches Аre Good (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Lightning Nodes Are Snatching Funds From Bad Actors (#GotBitcoin?)

The Provident Bank Now Offers Deposit Services For Crypto-Related Entities (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Could Help Stop News Censorship From Space (#GotBitcoin?)

US Sanctions On Iran Crypto Mining — Inevitable Or Impossible? (#GotBitcoin?)

US Lawmaker Reintroduces ‘Safe Harbor’ Crypto Tax Bill In Congress (#GotBitcoin?)

EU Central Bank Won’t Add Bitcoin To Reserves — Says It’s Not A Currency (#GotBitcoin?)

The Miami Dolphins Now Accept Bitcoin And Litecoin Crypt-Currency Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

Trump Bashes Bitcoin And Alt-Right Is Mad As Hell (#GotBitcoin?)

Goldman Sachs Ramps Up Development Of New Secret Crypto Project (#GotBitcoin?)

Blockchain And AI Bond, Explained (#GotBitcoin?)

Grayscale Bitcoin Trust Outperformed Indexes In First Half Of 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

XRP Is The Worst Performing Major Crypto Of 2019 (GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Back Near $12K As BTC Shorters Lose $44 Million In One Morning (#GotBitcoin?)

As Deutsche Bank Axes 18K Jobs, Bitcoin Offers A ‘Plan ฿”: VanEck Exec (#GotBitcoin?)

Argentina Drives Global LocalBitcoins Volume To Highest Since November (#GotBitcoin?)

‘I Would Buy’ Bitcoin If Growth Continues — Investment Legend Mobius (#GotBitcoin?)

Lawmakers Push For New Bitcoin Rules (#GotBitcoin?)

Facebook’s Libra Is Bad For African Americans (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Firm Charity Announces Alliance To Support Feminine Health (#GotBitcoin?)

Canadian Startup Wants To Upgrade Millions Of ATMs To Sell Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Trump Says US ‘Should Match’ China’s Money Printing Game (#GotBitcoin?)

Casa Launches Lightning Node Mobile App For Bitcoin Newbies (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Rally Fuels Market In Crypto Derivatives (#GotBitcoin?)

World’s First Zero-Fiat ‘Bitcoin Bond’ Now Available On Bloomberg Terminal (#GotBitcoin?)

Buying Bitcoin Has Been Profitable 98.2% Of The Days Since Creation (#GotBitcoin?)

Another Crypto Exchange Receives License For Crypto Futures

From ‘Ponzi’ To ‘We’re Working On It’ — BIS Chief Reverses Stance On Crypto (#GotBitcoin?)

These Are The Cities Googling ‘Bitcoin’ As Interest Hits 17-Month High (#GotBitcoin?)

Venezuelan Explains How Bitcoin Saves His Family (#GotBitcoin?)

Quantum Computing Vs. Blockchain: Impact On Cryptography

This Fund Is Riding Bitcoin To Top (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Surge Leaves Smaller Digital Currencies In The Dust (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Exchange Hits $1 Trillion In Trading Volume (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Breaks $200 Billion Market Cap For The First Time In 17 Months (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Make State Tax Payments In Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Religious Organizations Make Ideal Places To Mine Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Goldman Sacs And JP Morgan Chase Finally Concede To Crypto-Currencies (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Heading For Fifth Month Of Gains Despite Price Correction (#GotBitcoin?)

Breez Reveals Lightning-Powered Bitcoin Payments App For IPhone (#GotBitcoin?)

Big Four Auditing Firm PwC Releases Cryptocurrency Auditing Software (#GotBitcoin?)

Amazon-Owned Twitch Quietly Brings Back Bitcoin Payments (#GotBitcoin?)

JPMorgan Will Pilot ‘JPM Coin’ Stablecoin By End Of 2019: Report (#GotBitcoin?)

Is There A Big Short In Bitcoin? (#GotBitcoin?)

Coinbase Hit With Outage As Bitcoin Price Drops $1.8K In 15 Minutes

Samourai Wallet Releases Privacy-Enhancing CoinJoin Feature (#GotBitcoin?)

There Are Now More Than 5,000 Bitcoin ATMs Around The World (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Get Bitcoin Rewards When Booking At Hotels.Com (#GotBitcoin?)

North America’s Largest Solar Bitcoin Mining Farm Coming To California (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin On Track For Best Second Quarter Price Gain On Record (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Hash Rate Climbs To New Record High Boosting Network Security (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Exceeds 1Million Active Addresses While Coinbase Custodies $1.3B In Assets

Why Bitcoin’s Price Suddenly Surged Back $5K (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin’s Lightning Comes To Apple Smartwatches With New App (#GotBitcoin?)

E-Trade To Offer Crypto Trading (#GotBitcoin)

US Rapper Lil Pump Starts Accepting Bitcoin Via Lightning Network On Merchandise Store (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitfinex Used Tether Reserves To Mask Missing $850 Million, Probe Finds (#GotBitcoin?)

21-Year-Old Jailed For 10 Years After Stealing $7.5M In Crypto By Hacking Cell Phones (#GotBitcoin?)

You Can Now Shop With Bitcoin On Amazon Using Lightning (#GotBitcoin?)

Afghanistan, Tunisia To Issue Sovereign Bonds In Bitcoin, Bright Future Ahead (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Faithful Say Blockchain Can Remake Securities Market Machinery (#GotBitcoin?)

Disney In Talks To Acquire The Owner Of Crypto Exchanges Bitstamp And Korbit (#GotBitcoin?)

Crypto Exchange Gemini Rolls Out Native Wallet Support For SegWit Bitcoin Addresses (#GotBitcoin?)

Binance Delists Bitcoin SV, CEO Calls Craig Wright A ‘Fraud’ (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Outperforms Nasdaq 100, S&P 500, Grows Whopping 37% In 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

Bitcoin Passes A Milestone 400 Million Transactions (#GotBitcoin?)

Future Returns: Why Investors May Want To Consider Bitcoin Now (#GotBitcoin?)

Next Bitcoin Core Release To Finally Connect Hardware Wallets To Full Nodes (#GotBitcoin?)

Major Crypto-Currency Exchanges Use Lloyd’s Of London, A Registered Insurance Broker (#GotBitcoin?)

How Bitcoin Can Prevent Fraud And Chargebacks (#GotBitcoin?)

Why Bitcoin’s Price Suddenly Surged Back $5K (#GotBitcoin?)

Zebpay Becomes First Exchange To Add Lightning Payments For All Users (#GotBitcoin?)

Coinbase’s New Customer Incentive: Interest Payments, With A Crypto Twist (#GotBitcoin?)

The Best Bitcoin Debit (Cashback) Cards Of 2019 (#GotBitcoin?)

Real Estate Brokerages Now Accepting Bitcoin (#GotBitcoin?)

Ernst & Young Introduces Tax Tool For Reporting Cryptocurrencies (#GotBitcoin?)

How Will Bitcoin Behave During A Recession? (#GotBitcoin?)

Investors Run Out of Options As Bitcoin, Stocks, Bonds, Oil Cave To Recession Fears (#GotBitcoin?)

Our Facebook Page

Your Questions And Comments Are Greatly Appreciated.

Monty H. & Carolyn A

Go back

Leave a Reply