The Definitive Guide On Fasting, Autophagy, And Caloric Restriction
Dr. Rhonda Patrick (FoundMyFitness) Posted FMF Clips: 14 New Guido Kroemer Interview Clips. The Definitive Guide On Fasting, Autophagy, And Caloric Restriction
Just a quick update to let you guys know our little background project of harvesting a useful trove of information from older interviews continues unabated!
Dr. Rhonda Patrick (FoundMyFitness) Posted FMF Clips: 14 New Guido Kroemer Interview Clips.
Here’s the full playlist for the collection recently pulled from the interview with Dr. Guido Kroemer…
- What is autophagy? Degradation, recycling, and a beneficial response to stress | Guido Kroemer
- Minimum fasting length required for autophagy | Guido Kroemer
- Caloric Restriction Mimetics in Aging, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy, Autophagy Anti-Obesity Effect
- Autophagy expert: Dr. Guido Kroemer’s personal take on fasting, eating and other lifestyle habits
- Can limiting protein intake (or other selective nutrient depletion) induce autophagy?
- Periodic fasting has the same longevity benefit as caloric restriction (and without emaciation)
- Deprivation of nutrients (starvation) and other signals that play a key role in inducing autophagy
- Exercise-induced autophagy and its role in preventing diabetes | Guido Kroemer
- How the cell prioritizes and targets organelles and protein aggregates for degradation by autophagy
- Autophagy and cancer: a crucial role in immunosurveillance and chemotherapeutic treatment
- Fasting associated with sickness behavior critical to surviving bacterial infection | Guido Kroemer
- Mitophagy: a signal for mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic adaptation, and cellular differentiation
- Increasing general autophagy as a treatment for neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s Disease
- Does coffee induce autophagy? | Guido Kroemer
As many of you know, autophagy is an important part of the fasting discussion, so these will ultimately be making up a larger fasting playlist that covers everything fasting-related from FoundMyFitness all in one place! Coming soon.
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Perciavalle Patrick has a Ph.D. in biomedical science from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis TN and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis TN. She also has a Bachelor’s of Science degree in biochemistry/chemistry from the University of California, San Diego. She has done extensive research on aging, cancer, and nutrition. She did her graduate research at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital where she investigated the link between mitochondrial metabolism, apoptosis, and cancer. Her groundbreaking work discovered that a protein that is critical for cell survival has two distinct mitochondrial localizations with disparate functions, linking its anti-apoptotic role to a previously unrecognized role in mitochondrial respiration and maintenance of mitochondrial structure. Her dissertation findings were published in the 2012 issue of Nature Cell Biology.
Dr. Patrick trained as a postdoctoral fellow at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute with Dr. Bruce Ames. She investigated the effects of micronutrient (vitamins and minerals) inadequacies on metabolism, inflammation, DNA damage, and aging and whether supplementation can reverse the damage. In addition, she also investigated the role of vitamin D in brain function, behavior, and other physiological functions and has published papers in FASEB on how vitamin D regulates serotonin synthesis and how this relates to autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Dr. Patrick has also done research on aging at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences. At the Salk, she investigated what role insulin signaling played in protein misfolding, which is commonly found in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.
She frequently engages the public on topics including the role micronutrient deficiencies play in diseases of aging, the role of genetics in determining the effects of nutrients on a person’s health status, benefits of exposing the body to hormetic stressors, such as through exercise, fasting, sauna use or heat stress, or various forms of cold exposure, and the importance of mindfulness, stress reduction, and sleep. It is Dr. Patrick’s goal to challenge the status quo and encourage the wider public to think about health and longevity using a proactive, preventative approach.
* Vitamin D and the Omega-3 Fatty Acids Control Serotonin Synthesis and Action, Part 2: Relevance for ADHD, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, and Impulsive Behavior FASEB Journal
* Vitamin D Hormone Regulates Serotonin Synthesis. Part 1: Relevance for Autism FASEB Journal
* Requirement for Anti-Apoptotic MCL-1 in the Survival of BCR-ABL B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Blood
* Delving Deeper: MCL-1′s Contribution to Normal and Cancer Biology Trends in Cell Biology
* Anti-Apoptotic MCL-1 Localizes to the Mitochondrial Matrix and Couples Mitochondrial Fusion to Respiration Nature Cell Biology
* Ubiquitin-Independent Degradation of Anti-Apoptotic MCL-1 Molecular and Cellular Biology
* Opposing Activities Protect Against Age-Onset Proteotoxicity Science
The Real Secret Behind Living To Extreme Old Age
In the town of Molochio in Italy’s far south, living past 100 isn’t all that uncommon. One scientist is trying to figure out why.
In this episode of Prognosis, Bloomberg explores the secrets behind the elderly residents of Molochio. In this small Calabrian town in Italy’s far south, living to extreme old age isn’t all that uncommon. And food just might have everything to do with it.
Fasting studies suggest the practice can improve your health and lifespan. But one hurdle remains—few people want to do it.
Now medical experts are looking for ways to mimic the fasting state, without actually fasting.
HIIT (High-Intensity Interval Training) And Intermittent Fasting Show Cumulative Effect
The combination reduces body fat very significantly.
Which One Is Better?
Good dietary habits and physical activity are currently our best options for living longer and healthier lives. In recent years, two interventions have been gaining popularity – intermittent fasting and HIIT.
Some swear by one, and some by the other, and there is already considerable scientific evidence of their health benefits.
However, how these two interventions compare to each other and to their combination, in terms of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes, has remained an open question. The results of a new randomized, controlled trial published in Cell Metabolism seem to provide some answers.
The study was female-only and included 131 women of reproductive age (mean age of 36), randomly assigned to four study groups: time-restricted eating (TRE), HIIT, TRE+HIIT, and a control group. While sex bias might limit a study’s generalizability, we now know that men and women have somewhat different metabolisms.
Moreover, women had been underrepresented in medical trials until recently, so a lot of our scientific knowledge might be skewed towards male biology. Obesity and insulin resistance in women also have some sex-specific implications, including accelerated reproductive aging and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
In this study, TRE is basically intermittent fasting attuned to diurnal circadian rhythms, with eating confined to an 8- to 10-hour window during the day.
While TRE does not limit the total number of calories or food composition, people on TRE often spontaneously reduce their energy intake, leading to some weight loss . TRE is also known to improve insulin sensitivity in men with prediabetes  and even in healthy non-obese people .
HIIT is characterized by short, repeated bouts of high-intensity aerobic exercise separated by low-intensity breaks. It has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity in high-risk populations . HIIT also seems to be much more effective in inducing weight loss than continuous moderate-intensity workouts .
A combination of TRE and HIIT has already been shown to attenuate fat mass gain and some adverse metabolic changes in mice on a high-fat diet , but human data is limited.
Combine Them If You Can
This new study brings mixed results. The combination treatment had no effect on the primary outcome, glucose area under curve (AUC), which shows how well someone tackles post-meal glucose spikes.
However, participants in all study groups experienced significant weight loss, and both TRE and TRE+HIIT induced improvements in secondary glycemic control outcomes.
While TRE alone was able to reduce levels of nocturnal glucose, TRE+HIIT improved levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a primary metric of long-term blood glucose.
TRE+HIIT also led to a significant improvement in peak glucose levels. This metric has been gaining in importance, including in the context of aging, as two of the drugs shown to reliably extend lifespan in mice, acarbose and canagliflozin, work by flattening post-meal glucose spikes.
As expected, both TRE and HIIT led to some weight loss, but the combination treatment clearly showed a cumulative effect.
TRE induced mild muscle mass loss that was partially rescued in the TRE+HIIT group. HIIT, both alone and in combination with TRE, produced noticeable improvement in maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max), a metric of physical fitness.
The researchers note that most previous studies have shown bigger benefits for already unhealthy people. In this study, most of the participants, despite being obese, showed normal glycemic values at baseline. This might be the reason why the primary outcome was not achieved.
While the study was mostly well-designed, one detail pops out: mean BMI at baseline was the lowest in the TRE+HIIT group (31.4) and the highest in the control group (33.1).
Such discrepancies can potentially contaminate the results, though there is no evidence that this happened in this study.
This randomized, controlled trial confirms the benefits of both intermittent fasting and HIIT on certain metabolic outcomes in generally healthy overweight women.
Both interventions are beneficial on their own, but women who practice them together, according to this study, are rewarded with a cumulative effect. Future research will confirm the likely possibility that this is just as true for men.
 Haganes, K. L., Silva, C. P., Eyjólfsdóttir, S. K., Steen, S., Grindberg, M., Lydersen, S., … & Moholdt, T. (2022). Time-restricted eating and exercise training improve HbA1c and body composition in women with overweight/obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Cell Metabolism, 34(10), 1457-1471.
 Kang, J., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Bush, J. A., Beller, N., Vargas, A., … & Andriopoulos, T. (2021). Effect of time-restricted feeding on anthropometric, metabolic, and fitness parameters: a systematic review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1-16.
 Sutton, E. F., Beyl, R., Early, K. S., Cefalu, W. T., Ravussin, E., & Peterson, C. M. (2018). Early time-restricted feeding improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and oxidative stress even without weight loss in men with prediabetes. Cell metabolism, 27(6), 1212-1221.
 Xie, Z., Sun, Y., Ye, Y., Hu, D., Zhang, H., He, Z., … & Mao, Y. (2022). Randomized controlled trial for time-restricted eating in healthy volunteers without obesity. Nature communications, 13(1), 1-10.
 Maturana, F. M., Martus, P., Zipfel, S., & Nieß, A. M. (2020). Effectiveness of HIIE versus MICT in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in health and disease: a meta-analysis. Med. Sci. Sport Exer, 53, 559-573.
 Viana, R. B., Naves, J. P. A., Coswig, V. S., De Lira, C. A. B., Steele, J., Fisher, J. P., & Gentil, P. (2019). Is interval training the magic bullet for fat loss? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing moderate-intensity continuous training with high-intensity interval training (HIIT). British journal of sports medicine.
 Vieira, R. F. L., Muñoz, V. R., Junqueira, R. L., de Oliveira, F., Gaspar, R. C., Nakandakari, S. C. B. R., … & Pauli, J. R. (2022). Time‐restricted feeding combined with aerobic exercise training can prevent weight gain and improve metabolic disorders in mice fed a high‐fat diet. The Journal of Physiology, 600(4), 797-813.
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