These Companies Are Succeeding Despite Amazon Or A Slowing Economy (#GotBitcoin?)
For starters, CEO Michelle Gass says she doesn’t think of the company as a department store. These Companies Are Succeeding Despite Amazon Or A Slowing Economy (#GotBitcoin?)
How Kohl’s Is Succeeding Where Other Chains Haven’t
Department stores, once the go-to destination for the shopping needs of the entire family, have been under assault as buying has shifted online and to more value-oriented chains such as Walmart Inc. and T.J. Maxx.
While other types of retailers, including Best Buy Co. and Target Corp. , have pivoted enough to survive the retail crisis of recent years, in which dozens of chains went under and hundreds of stores closed, department stores have been slower to change.
Sears Holdings Corp. and Bon-Ton Stores Inc., two venerable department stores that dominated their markets for much of the past century, filed for bankruptcy protection this year. Others are struggling to stay relevant, including J.C. Penney Co. , which is on its third chief executive in seven years as it has careened from one strategy to another.
Kohl’s Corp. , by contrast, is surviving the onslaught better than many of its peers. It has tried to do things differently, including striking a controversial partnership with Amazon.com Inc. and teaming with social-media platform PopSugar Inc. to design a line of clothes. The result has been a string of strong sales.
Chief Executive Michelle Gass, a 50-year-old former Starbucks Corp. executive who took the helm of Kohl’s in May after joining the company in 2013, spoke about about the changing retail market and what Kohl’s is doing to stay ahead of the competition. Edited excerpts follow.
Q: Why do you think Kohl’s is having success when so many other retailers, especially department stores, are struggling?
MS. GASS: We don’t think of ourselves as a department store. We aren’t in malls. Our stores have a racetrack design, which makes them easy to navigate. The cash registers are at the front of the store, rather than dispersed in departments, which makes checkout easy to locate. From the early days, we created a model that is easier and more convenient for shoppers than a typical department store.
Q: You have more than 1,100 stores. Unlike other retailers, you haven’t had mass closings. Why is that?
MS. GASS: We haven’t faced the same pressure to close stores as other retailers have. The moves we are making to use our stores differently are helping us to keep them relevant. We are making our stores smaller. We are looking at opportunities to lease out extra space. In Milwaukee, we are leasing space to Aldi [the supermarket chain]. We put up a wall. We’re reducing the inventory by double digits and assorting as a smaller store.
Q: Last year, you launched a partnership with Amazon.com. You’ve created dedicated departments to showcase some Amazon electronic products such as Echo. And you are allowing shoppers to return purchases from Amazon at Kohl’s stores. Weren’t you nervous about getting in bed with a company that is upending the retail industry?
MS. GASS: There is a lot of space for both of us. In thinking about the partnership, it was how do we take Amazon’s dramatic customer base and combine it with Kohl’s physical stores to create value for both of us.
Q: How is it going so far?
MS. GASS: We now accept Amazon returns in 100 stores and have dedicated Amazon departments in 30 stores. Based on the volume of returns we are getting, people are using the service. What we are trying to determine is, of the people coming in and returning something from Amazon, how many are crossing the aisle and buying something from Kohl’s?
‘Mindset of Experimentation’
Q: Department stores tend to have an older customer base. What are you doing to reach younger shoppers?
MS. GASS: That’s where PopSugar comes into play. It’s one of the most wide-reaching social-media properties for millennial females. We were already advertising some of our brands on PopSugar. That told us they are reaching the customers we want to reach.
We designed and produced a clothing collection with them. The first line is in stores now.
Q: How can you tell whether it’s resonating with younger shoppers?
MS. GASS: Thirty-five percent of the sales are online, which is much higher than our overall average.
Q: Another way department stores tend to get younger shoppers is through their gift registry business. Yet, you chose to exit that business. Why?
MS. GASS: We weren’t creating a great customer experience, so I’d rather not be in the business. We’ll probably bring it back someday, but it will look a lot different. When you do things like that, it forces you to think about making a sea change versus an incremental change.
Q: Change can be hard for people in big organizations. How have you tried to get your team to embrace it?
MS. GASS: I tell them the most important thing is around innovation and speed. Those that are too slow will be left behind. You aren’t always going to get it right, but you’ve got to be out there trying things and really have a mind-set of experimentation.
Q: With so many retailers disappearing—Toys “R” Us Inc. recently closed all its stores—where do you see opportunity to pick up market share this holiday season?
MS. GASS: We’re getting into the toy business in a bigger way. We added the Lego and FAO Schwarz brands. With Bon-Ton not around, that store had a lot of overlap with Kohl’s. We plan to go after those customers.
How To “Amazon-Proof” Your Business
A sales slowdown at department-store giants like Macy’s and Nordstrom has scared investors away from retail stocks. Williams-Sonoma has fallen along with its larger rivals, and its shares trade at a discount to the broader market—opening up a rare opportunity to buy a healthy retailer whose business model should shelter it from the worst of the storm.
Williams-Sonoma owns several well-known brands that should benefit from an improving housing market. Tasteful Americans, and those who aspire to tastefulness, outfit their homes with Williams-Sonoma cookware, West Elm sofas, and Pottery Barn napkins. Their customers tend to spend a bit more than they would at Bed Bath & Beyond but quite a bit less than at Restoration Hardware Holdings (RH). Williams-Sonoma had 618 company-owned stores at the end of fiscal 2015, with more than 90% located in the U.S.
Williams-Sonoma shares have fallen 33% in the past year, less than competitors like Bed Bath and Restoration Hardware, which plunged 21% last Thursday alone on a reduced profit outlook. But the broad SPDR S&P Retail exchange-traded fund (XRT) is down just 14% over the past year. At $52.14, the stock trades at 14.3 times forward four-quarter earnings estimates, well below the market and the company’s five-year average of 17.5.
Williams-Sonoma has differentiated itself from the sector with one of the most robust Internet operations in retail, a crucial advantage as brick-and-mortar stores struggle with an existential crisis. The company garners just over half its revenue online and has built a customer database of nearly 60 million households. It calls the stores “billboards for our brands” that inspire customers to shop online. Internet sales also carry higher margins than in-store sales and are growing faster—8.2% versus 4.7% in the most recent quarter.
Bullish analysts like Oppenheimer’s Brian Nagel think shares could hit $65 in the next year to 18 months if the earnings multiple rises to 16 times 2017 estimates, more in line with its growth prospects. Add the 2.8% dividend yield, and the stock could return more than 25%.
“Williams-Sonoma is very Amazon-proof,” says Cody Wheaton, an analyst and assistant portfolio manager at Janus Capital, which boosted its stake in the company in the most recent quarter. “Because Williams-Sonoma controls its own inventory—it’s exclusive to their channel and their brand—and it has a very strong e-commerce business, the company is more immune than most to the lurking Amazon threat.”
Williams-Sonoma’s head start in online sales, which grew out of its decades-long experience as a catalog retailer, should help it gain market share in a fragmented industry. It has a 5% share of the furniture and home furnishings markets in an industry that has been slow to adapt to the Internet age; the company estimates that about 90% of home-furnishings sales still come from physical stores. That leaves plenty of room for the company to gain market share and expand profits. The company earned $310 million on $5 billion in sales last year, and is expected to earn $320 million on $5.2 billion this year. Earnings per share are seen rising 6%, to $3.58 from $3.37.
Analysts expect Williams-Sonoma’s earnings to grow at 10% a year over the long term, slightly below the company’s own target of low-double-digit to mid-teen growth.
Beyond Internet Sales, several trends should help spur that growth. Home-goods stores have contended with a depressed housing market for eight years, but home construction and sales appear to be picking up. Over the first four months of the year, housing starts rose 10% above the same period in 2015. The annualized rate of home sales eclipsed six million in April for the first time in nine years.
Williams-Sonoma, which got its start in 1956 as a cookware store in Sonoma, Calif., has expanded slowly and strategically, adding West Elm stores while closing outlets of its slower-growing namesake brand. In total, the store base is growing about 3% a year.
Morningstar analyst Jaime Katz expects Williams-Sonoma to allow leases to expire in malls with weak traffic, while opening new stores in spots with higher growth potential. Among the most promising growth avenues is the company’s international franchise business, which sports higher operating profit margins than the rest of the company. Williams-Sonoma’s partners plan to open at least 20 franchise locations in Mexico, the Middle East, and the Philippines this year. A similar strategy at L Brands (LB) paid off handsomely, according to Katz. Its franchised stores have operating margins that are more than five percentage points above the overall company.
Williams-Sonoma also has a strong balance sheet, with negligible net debt and a substantial dividend and buyback program. The company could return more than $1.4 billion—over a quarter of its market value—to shareholders over the next five years, says Katz. And the payout has grown at a 19% annual clip over the past five years.
In retail, a bargain like this doesn’t come around very often.
When Amazon Spots A Hot-Seller
Thousands of small merchants depend on Amazon.com Inc. to reach customers who otherwise wouldn’t know they exist. A few of them complain, though, that Amazon sometimes eats their lunch.
According to some small retailers, the Seattle-based giant appears to be increasingly using its Marketplace—where third-party retailers sell their wares on the Amazon.com site—as a vast laboratory to spot new products to sell, test sales of potential new goods, and exert more control over pricing.
Jeff Peterson, owner of Collectible Supplies Inc., a Garden Grove, Calif., retailer of sports merchandise, last summer began selling $29.99 Pillow Pets—stuffed-animal pillows modeled after NFL mascots—through Amazon’s site. For several months, sales were relatively robust, with as many as 100 of the Pillow Pets a day.
Then just ahead of the holiday season late last year, Mr. Peterson noticed Amazon had itself begun offering the same Pillow Pets for the same price while giving the products featured placement on the site.
Kathy Wojtczak, owner of a jewelry boutique in Seattle, appears in an Amazon ad as one of many ‘thriving’ small businesses on the site. She says she hasn’t had to compete with Amazon on products she carries.
Sales of Collectible Supplies’ Pillow Pets soon fell to 20 a day “because Amazon was offering it,” Mr. Peterson said. “I tried lowering the prices, but Amazon would always match my price or go lower until I eventually gave up” and set it at the manufacturer’s suggested price, he added. Prices fluctuate, but Amazon was recently selling a Baltimore Ravens Pillow Pet for $12 with free shipping, while Mr. Peterson is again offering the product for $29.99.
“Amazon is a double-edged sword,” said Thomas Frenchu, chief operating officer of Tabcom LLC, owner of dog.com, garden.com and others. “You have to deal with them, you have to be on their site, but we also have to fight harder and harder every day to compete with them.”
For certain, small retailers are drawn to Amazon Marketplace by the promise of tapping into the Internet company’s roughly 85 million unique monthly visitors, 45% greater than eBay Inc. and nearly 7-fold more than Sears Holding Corp., both of which host their own third-party marketplaces, according to comScore data.
Amazon executives declined to discuss pricing or purchasing strategies. “All of our focus is on helping making sellers successful,” said Peter Faricy, Amazon Marketplace vice president, who added the company has more than two million third-party sellers world-wide. “If we can identify hot products and make suggestions to them, we do that.”
Sellers report an average 50% increase in sales when they join Amazon’s marketplace and use its storage and shipping service, added Tom Taylor, vice president of fulfillment by Amazon, in an interview. He attributed that to lower-cost delivery and the quality of Amazon’s customer service.
Hadi Irvani, director of e-commerce for Okabashi Brands Inc., a producer of flip-flops and other sandals, said he saw sales grow immediately after joining Amazon’s marketplace in May 2010. The Buford, Ga., company now gets about 10% of its $3 million in online sales annually from Amazon and Mr. Irvani said he would likely use Amazon’s fulfillment to help save as much as $100,000 in annual shipping costs. “It transformed our business to be on Amazon,” said Mr. Irvani.
Amazon takes a commission for every marketplace sale—a 6% cut for personal computers, for instance, to as high as 15% for mobile phones and musical instruments—and charges larger sellers a monthly membership fee. Overall, the marketplace generates 9% to 12% of Amazon’s total $48.1 billion in annual revenue, according to analyst estimates.
Third-party sellers increased their unit sales by 60% in the first quarter, compared with a year earlier, and such sales now represent 39% of Amazon’s total, the company said.
Yet some sellers say they suspect Amazon uses sales data from outside merchants to make purchasing decisions in order to undercut them on price and give items featured placement under a given search, a prominent position on the page known as the “buy box.”
“There are countless items that they (Amazon) didn’t sell before that they sell now because of Marketplace,” said Brad Howard, president of Las Vegas-based CuffCrazy.com, which sells about $2 million annually of specialty men’s items like Darth Vader cufflinks.
Amazon declined to comment beyond its earlier statement.
Mr. Howard said Amazon recently began selling a Rick Steves brand travel bag that he believed it identified as a strong seller through its marketplace retailers. “It happens fairly regularly that Amazon finds a new product to sell themselves and when they do it’s pretty much impossible to compete,” Mr. Howard said.
Amazon will often list in the buy box the cheapest item under a given search, unless the company offers it itself within 1% of the lowest offered price, sellers said. Mr. Howard estimates 90% of customers purchase what’s in the buy box, rather than searching deeper within Amazon’s site.
Amazon is willing to lose money on the sale of some products and can drive down prices by buying items in larger quantities than many competitors, says Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster. That, in turn, can force third-party retailers to lower their own prices.
Some of these issues are set to grow as third-party sellers become an increasing part of the Internet retailer’s business. Within five years, third-party vendors could make up 55% of all Amazon unit sales, said Mr. Munster, up from 36% in 2011.
Some third-party sellers are already scaling back from selling on Amazon’s marketplace. Melissa Van Flandern, co-founder of Seattle-based Tottini, said she’s discouraged by Amazon’s constant price changes and is putting less inventory on the marketplace.
“It was great in the beginning, we got our brand out there,” said Ms. Van Flandern, whose baby products store generates about $500,000 in annual sales. But she pointed to a giraffe-shaped teething toy dubbed Sophie as one product Amazon capitalized on in the wake of third-party retailers. “We used to sell a ton of Sophies on Amazon,” she said. “Not anymore.” Tottini no longer lists the Sophie teething toy on Amazon.
Five Below, the Amazon-Proof Store
Retailer of items for $5 or less has nearly quadrupled its locations, including a new one in Manhattan.
Many retailers are closing stores. Five Below Inc. FIVE +1.69% can’t seem to open them fast enough.
The chain, which sells everything from Spalding basketballs to Bluetooth headphones and yoga mats for $5 or less, might be the most successful retailer you’ve never heard of.
By the end of this year, Five Below’s store count will have nearly quadrupled to 750 locations since its 2012 initial public offering, with its latest location opening Friday in Manhattan—the chain’s first in the New York City borough.
All that growth hasn’t cannibalized existing locations, which have posted sales increases in all but one of Five Below’s 25 quarters as a public company. Total sales over that period have nearly tripled to $1.28 billion. Profits are up roughly sixfold, and its stock has climbed 608% to $120.31 through Thursday’s close since the IPO.
Five Below uses a formula that has largely insulated it from competition from Amazon.com Inc. The chain keeps prices low by creating products from scratch with hundreds of suppliers around the world and sells them in an environment where children want to hang out. Its own e-commerce sales are so negligible the company doesn’t break them out; shipping often costs more than the entire purchase.
“Online is great when you know what you want,” Five Below Chief Executive Joel Anderson said. “When you walk into one of our stores, you will discover things you didn’t know you wanted. It’s like a treasure hunt. We’re the T.J. Maxx for kids.”
At 8,000 square feet, its stores are relatively small, making it easy to wander the mazelike floor plan grouped around eight categories: sports, technology, party, candy, style, create, room and now—the latter filled with seasonal products such as Halloween costumes or Christmas decorations.
Shelving is no higher than 5 feet, creating a comfortable space for preteens and teenagers who have outgrown traditional toy stores and are Five Below’s core customers. They are encouraged to bounce the basketballs, test-drive radio-controlled cars and participate in slime-making contests—anything that will help them spend their allowance money.
Five Below also has items for grown-ups, including cucumber face-masks, yoga mats, storage bins, greeting cards and vintage candy from Mike and Ike fruit-flavored chews to Goetze’s Caramel Creams.
Unlike other bargain stores like Dollar Tree or Family Dollar that focus on necessities such as laundry detergent and toothpaste, Five Below is the place to come to find things you didn’t know you wanted, such as squeezable foam toys called “squishies” that have gone viral on YouTube.
“It’s like a dollar store—but more,” said Steve Luvender, a 28-year-old web designer, who recently visited a Five Below near his home in Allentown, Pa., for Halloween decorations, including a shark costume for himself. “I wouldn’t have searched Amazon for that, but it was fun to pick up something unexpected.”
A study last year by KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. found that a basket of 67 items was 52.6% less expensive at Five Below than on Amazon.com.
“No retailer is truly Amazon-proof, but they are in a better position than most,” said Bradley Thomas, a KeyBanc managing director of equity research. “You will save money if you shop at Five Below rather than on Amazon. Most retailers can’t say that.”
An Amazon spokeswoman said the KeyBanc study was flawed and misleading. “We continue to offer our customers low prices and incredible deals on a vast selection of products, in addition to fast and free shipping options,” she added.
When Five Below was founded in 2002 by David Schlessinger and Tom Vellios, the pioneers of the now defunct Zany Brainy toy chain, they had to come up with creative ways to keep prices low. Mr. Schlessinger left the company in 2015. Mr. Vellios remains chairman.
One breakthrough was to ship basketballs deflated without boxes, allowing more to fit in each container, which lowered freight costs. The balls are inflated once they arrive at the store.
“The No. 1 thing we like is they don’t get greedy,” said Chuck Grom, an analyst with Gordon Haskett Research Advisors. “They could have better margins, but they take that money and put it into better products.”
Keeping prices low is getting harder, because most of what Five Below sells is made in China and many of the products are subject to U.S. tariffs. The company is looking at ways to alter items to make them tariff-free, and it is considering moving some production to other countries. Mr. Anderson, a former Toys “R” Us Inc. and Walmart Inc. executive, said raising prices is a last resort.
It also is testing “Ten Below” sections in four stores that offer items such as wireless home speakers and skateboards for $10 or less, though company executives said the move is unrelated to pricing pressure.
Mr. Anderson said he sees a huge opportunity to pick up toy sales with Toys “R” Us Inc. out of the picture this holiday season. Five Below has added 20 feet of space to the toy sections in each store and is working with major manufacturers such as Hasbro Inc. and Mattel Inc. to get fresh products.
Five Below was one of the first to spot the fidget spinners trend last year, and it was early to the make-your-own slime craze, after one of its buyers noticed that sales of Elmer’s glue had shot up. (It is a key ingredient in slime.)
“Slime has been hot all year,” Mr. Anderson said.
How One Independent Bookstore Succeeds In The Amazon Age
A Cappella Books has survived, even thrived, the same way other indie bookstores have: by rethinking the way it makes money.
Frank Reiss’s business spent 10 years on the edge of collapse.
During the late 1990s and 2000s, his independent bookstore—like so many of its peers—faced intense pressure from Amazon and big-box chains. At his lowest point, Mr. Reiss was a quarter of a million dollars in debt, with wavering hope that he could survive the digital age.
Now Atlanta-based A Cappella Books has become a success story. Its sales have doubled from a decade ago and are now closing in on $1 million. Profit margins have risen, too, as have many of its peers’.
First, Mr. Reiss added a whole other side to his operation, author events, which proved lucrative and bolstered his storefront operation. And he focused his events and his bookstore selections to reflect his interests—a personal touch that resonates with a lot of customers these days.
“I think the facelessness of e-commerce has stirred in enough people…a sense of nostalgia for real stores, buying real products from real people having conversations,” Mr. Reiss says.
The story of how Mr. Reiss turned his business around says much about the surprising revival of the independent-bookstore industry, which was pretty much left for dead a short time ago. In part, the stores have been helped by the fall of large chains—their prime nemesis before the advent of Amazon and other online sellers. But independent bookstores have also had to leverage that opportunity to the fullest, and more often than not, that has meant rethinking the whole way they make money.
The Big Turnaround
The numbers tell a stark story. Experts who track the industry say that the mid-1990s saw a huge erosion of privately owned bookstores. But now the American Booksellers Association, an industry trade group, says that those independent stores are making a strong comeback, with the number of locations rising to 2,470 currently from 1,651 in 2009, the first year the ABA started tracking the number.
Oren Teicher, chief executive of the association, credits the boom to several factors, including cheaper back-office technology; the use of social media for promotion; and more favorable distribution terms from publishers.
Customers themselves have also changed. More people want to shop local, and they want shops with personality.
“Book curation is a critical part of the story for indie booksellers that are not just surviving, but are growing,” says Ryan L. Raffaelli, assistant professor at Harvard Business School, who studies industries in transition, with a focus on bookstores in recent years. Customers seem to be willing to pay a higher price, he says, for books that have been “carefully selected from the mass of options.”
Most successful longtime bookstores have their own distinctive flavor. The King’s English in Salt Lake City, in business since 1977, specializes in literary fiction. R.J. Julia in Madison, Conn., 30 years in business, offers a subscription service that sends books based on readers’ personal preferences. Chartwell Booksellers in New York City specializes in books about Winston Churchill.
In Mr. Reiss’s case, the selling point has evolved into speakers and a book selection that generally represent his liberal political slant, distinctive musical interests, such as protest and folk music, and a fresh take on Southern history.
It’s a combination that has delivered rising sales and earnings for most of the past seven years, he says. In 2018, he recorded $830,000 in sales, and earnings of $37,000 before tax, for a margin of 4.4%. In his best year, 2017, he posted sales of $880,000, profits of $74,000, and margins of 8.5%.
Mr. Reiss’s biggest expenses are the cost of goods sold—that is, the books—which eat up half his sales. Then there are salaries for the store’s five full-time employees—including Mr. Reiss himself—which take up 25%. Rent, licenses and other expenses account for the rest.
Mr. Reiss expects sales to climb in 2019, “with that $1 million mark something that I’m always keeping my eye on,” he says.
Still, Mr. Reiss emphasizes that even though book selling is better than it was a decade ago, it remains a highly unpredictable business—and his trade isn’t a lucrative one. This is “not a business to get into to make money, at least in the traditional way,” he says.
Sales, however, aren’t the only measure of his success. There’s also influence. “For its size and scope as a new and used bookstore with a proven ability to host celebrity artists, musicians and politicians, A Cappella is one of the most successful indie bookstores in America today,” says Linda-Marie Barrett, assistant executive director of the Southern Independent Booksellers Alliance.
A Changing Field
Mr. Reiss founded A Cappella Books in 1989, in Atlanta’s bohemian neighborhood of Little Five Points. It got its name from Mr. Reiss’s interest in music—he was a onetime aspiring musician himself—and because he figured he would have to work without accompaniment.
The place started as an antiquarian bookstore, its shelves crammed with used and rare books. Mr. Reiss picked up inventory from retiring philosophy professors or widows of Civil War buffs, often for pennies, then turned them around for $40 or $50. Some especially rare titles went for thousands of dollars. The store quickly became successful, and Mr. Reiss took on an employee and moved to a new, larger location.
A Cappella Books evolved into a gathering place for intellectuals, musicians, writers and artists, earning the store cachet.
But the “cool” factor wasn’t enough to overcome the tsunami that hit book selling in the 1990s. At first, Mr. Reiss didn’t worry. He was selling something different than the big guys. But by 2000, he says, the store was struggling. With rare titles easy to find online, it was tough to get even $5 for books that Mr. Reiss had once sold for as much as $50.
In 2005, he moved to a new spot, hoping to give the store a refresh, and experimented with running a dessert shop next door. Now the slim profits went to paying down debts incurred on a renovation, and to prop up the side business—which failed.
Then he tried adding new books to the mix to attract people who might otherwise buy from big operators. But in contrast to carefully selected rare books, which had enjoyed wide profit margins and could be purchased in manageable quantities, new books had to be bought in bulk, based on what sales reps pushed.
Mr. Reiss bought the new titles from publishers on credit, at up to 46% off the cover price. He then sold the books at 20% off the cover price, hoping to move enough to cover forthcoming payments. What didn’t sell had to be returned—a job that was both costly and labor-intensive. Margins shrank to almost nothing.
What’s more, the store underwent an identity crisis as new, mainstream titles began crowding out titles reflecting Mr. Reiss’s tastes.
Sales held steady in the high $200,000s—much of it from the lower-margin new books—which covered Mr. Reiss’s costs but didn’t afford much breathing room. He had to keep staff lean, and he cut his salary below $30,000. He and his wife, a government attorney, increasingly relied on her salary to support themselves and their two daughters. Even in more profitable years, Mr. Reiss says, his salary has never exceeded $50,000.
Eventually, Mr. Reiss went to friends and family, who agreed to lend him money at low interest, which helped save him from defaulting.
Then Mr. Reiss got advice from his dad, who also owned a bookstore. Author events, his father told him, could be the answer.
Mr. Reiss gave it a shot. The events were slow at first, and not lucrative. Then, in 2005, Mr. Reiss heard that Al Franken would embark on a tour for “The Truth (With Jokes).” Mr. Reiss begged Sen. Franken’s producer to include Atlanta on his tour; he got a “yes.” (Sen. Franken says he doesn’t specifically remember the conversation with Mr. Reiss but recalls that he did want to go to Atlanta.)
Mr. Reiss asked the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum to host a talk and signing at no cost, and the venue agreed. He then rented the 750-seat Variety Playhouse for about $1,500 for another event: Sen. Franken was doing his radio show on the road, and listeners could attend.
“I tried to act like I knew what I was doing,” Mr. Reiss recalls. “But this was all uncharted territory for me.”
The venues were packed—and Mr. Reiss was there with plenty of books to sell to attendees. He sold them at full retail price, and kept all the proceeds.
Mr. Reiss figures that between the signing and radio show, he sold 500 books for full retail price—$25.95 each—clearing about $13,000 in sales in one day and one night. That equaled almost half of his revenue for an average month.
Other events and off-site book sales followed. Mr. Reiss sold books at comedy clubs, Atlanta City Hall, museums, libraries, churches and synagogues. His growing cachet reacquainted him with author-customers from the past seeking promotion. And it attracted ever more prominent authors, among them Pat Conroy and Malcolm Gladwell.
Although sales at the bookstore stagnated, sales at book signings and events at other venues boomed. He continued to purchase books for events at the usual 46% discount to the cover price and then sell them at full cover price. To keep as much of that money as possible, Mr. Reiss hosts nearly all of his 200 or so annual events at free venues, and never pays speakers nor covers their expenses.
For most of those events, admission is free, but for some—up to 15 each year—Mr. Reiss sells tickets. In free venues, the ticket price is the cover price of the book plus tax, and a copy is included. In the rare cases when a venue is rented, as with a Bernie Sanders event, ticket buyers get a copy of the book, but the price is higher than the cover price.
He keeps about 75% of the total proceeds for most events, after paying for website listings, setting up online ticket-sales programs and paying his staff to promote the event on social media.
In 2012, Mr. Reiss moved to a smaller space, which was all he figured he needed as events got more popular. During the first year there, he recorded his highest sales volume up to that point. Today, Mr. Reiss figures book sales through events account for up to half of A Cappella’s overall sales, with the rest generated by the bookstore operation.
His older books remain as distinctive as ever, Mr. Reiss says, but the new ones are curated more subtly; he chooses a broader selection of new titles than he used to, but avoids books that don’t interest him and picks up more of those that do.
These days, most of the books that A Cappella sells are new. Although rare books occasionally go for big money—signed first editions of “Gone With the Wind,” “To Kill a Mockingbird” and William Faulkner’s “The Town,” to name a few, each sold for more than $10,000 in recent years. But Mr. Reiss says, in most cases, these kinds of titles don’t hold their value in the internet economy.
On the other hand, he feels that he is now in a position to charge full cover price, without the old practice of discounting. And that’s a sign of health for the industry, he says.
“Like many indie bookstores, we’ve been lucky to see a genuine rebound of interest among people,” he says. “So now I can sell books for full retail even without having the author signing and visiting, because once again, people are reminding themselves that they really do like real bookstores, and they will pay what it costs to keep us in business.”
Imitating Amazon: E-Commerce Battle Bolstered by Companies Mimicking the Market Leader
From shipping startups to warehouse providers, a virtual network aimed at competing with Amazon is growing in the company’s long shadow.
When entrepreneur Patrick Coddou was looking to boost sales at Supply, the specialty shaving products company he and his wife, Jennifer, founded four years ago, he turned to Amazon. com Inc.
He added the company’s single-blade razors and marble shaving bowls to Amazon’s marketplace in 2016 and used the e-commerce giant’s fulfillment service to package and ship the orders, supplementing the business the couple was handling themselves out of their garage in Fort Worth, Texas.
Three years later Mr. Coddou has pulled his products from Amazon, citing fulfillment costs and seller fees that shaved his margins, among other issues. He moved the company’s online order fulfillment over to e-commerce technology company Shopify Inc., which this year began rolling out its own physical distribution service.
Despite the vast reach of Amazon’s marketplace, “If you’re trying to build something, a brand, a relationship [with customers], Amazon’s not a good place,” Mr. Coddou said. “Before I took it off Amazon, they started advertising their Amazon razors on my page.”
Companies like Supply that are looking to reach customers and fulfill orders have many more options these days. Amazon’s dominance of digital retail sales has spawned a fast-growing ecosystem of startups and services aimed at matching different parts of Amazon’s sprawling network and at helping retailers and brands of all sizes meet consumer expectations set by the e-commerce heavyweight.
Taken together, the businesses are creating what amounts to a virtual logistics system in Amazon’s shadow for retailers racing to keep up with the sector’s leader. This is creating new competition for the online giant even as Amazon itself continues to upend traditional retail and distribution strategies.
Some of the new offerings cater to brands that may sell on Amazon but don’t want to pay the company’s fulfillment charges, or that view Amazon as a potential competitor. Some major brands such as Nike Inc. have pulled back from selling directly through Amazon, choosing for a variety of reasons to use tools they’ve either built themselves or brought in from other companies.
Businesses including Shopify, Wix.com and Squarespace help sellers set up digital stores and process payments. A growing lineup of new and established software firms offer tailored technology to tell retailers where to keep their inventory.
Operators like ShipBob and Quiet Logistics fulfill orders for direct-to-consumer brands through their own warehouses that help sellers put their inventory closer to customers for faster shipping, To help companies match Amazon’s growing network of distribution centers, on-demand warehousing startups such as Flowspace Inc. and Flexe Inc. connect retailers to warehouses with space to share. Robotics companies like Massachusetts-based 6 River Systems and Singapore-based GreyOrange Pte. supply automation to mimic Amazon’s robot-heavy handling while software companies such as Shippo, ShipHawk and ShipHero help merchants book shipments and track order deliveries.
The upstarts have built business as more established companies including the big parcel carriers have tailored services to businesses looking for fast and nimble ways to reach consumers.
Before 2005, when Amazon’s Prime program launched, online fulfillment involved two basic choices: “Fast and expensive or slow and inexpensive,” said Jim Tompkins, chief executive of supply-chain consultancy Tompkins International. Now, “it’s a whole new game,” he said.
“It’s not cheap to use FBA [Fulfillment By Amazon], and it’s dangerous,” because Amazon may choose to provide competition for the sales, said Jun-Sheng Li, a former senior vice president of global e-commerce supply chain at Walmart Inc. who is now an executive in residence at venture-capital firm Canvas Ventures, a Flowspace investor.
Amazon “has invested tens of billions of dollars in developing a world-class fulfillment network and we offer that network to sellers at highly competitive fees when compared to other options,” the company said in a statement. Amazon said it doesn’t “use an individual seller’s data to determine which private label products to launch” and prohibits the use of that data “to compete with them through our first-party offerings, including through our private label products.”
Amazon accounts for an estimated 37.6% of U.S. e-commerce sales, according to research firm eMarketer. The site’s seemingly endless range of goods has conditioned shoppers to order everything from paper towels to couches online. Many expect shipping for those purchases to be fast, free and trackable.
“It created a huge level of expectation, but Amazon by itself can only fulfill part of it, from a service provider standpoint,” Mr. Li said.
This year Shopify and online marketplace eBay Inc., companies best known for helping customers sell goods online, said they plan to offer physical distribution services, using technology to stitch together networks made up of third-party warehouse operators.
Shopify, which bought logistics automation company 6 River Systems this year and has seven U.S. fulfillment locations so far, says it gives smaller logistics providers access to technology and can offer merchants lower rates than they could negotiate on their own. ”We can tell them where to send their products, and we can fulfill their products in two days to 99% of the population at a reasonable rate,” Chief Operating Officer Harley Finkelstein said.
Investors are pumping more money into such businesses.
Chicago-based ShipBob has raised more than $60 million in funding rounds that have backed expansion of a budding network of warehouses from Pennsylvania to California. The company focuses on direct-to-consumer companies that want one- or two-day shipping, and it also fulfills Amazon orders.
At one stage “the options were extremely large incumbents, the local mom and pops, fulfill yourself or FBA,” said Casey Armstrong, ShipBob’s chief marketing officer. Now, “some of the people we compete against are newer than we are.”
This year real-estate firm the Related Cos. and property investor Greenfield Partners jointly acquired digital fulfillment operator Quiet Logistics for an undisclosed amount. The Devens, Mass., company. has a network of U.S. warehouses where robots help workers fulfill orders for digital brands such as Bonobos and Outdoor Voices, and it plans to open more to increase its same-day and next-day shipping options.
“Amazon is a large reason we ended up being purchased by Related and Greenfield,” said Quiet Logistics Chief Revenue Officer Kate Klemmer Terry. As big players like Amazon and Walmart push for faster delivery, “our ownership’s vision is you take someone like Quiet, put them in city centers where you’re closer to the end consumer.”
Traditional logistics providers are developing e-commerce services pitched at direct-to-consumer brands and smaller businesses. This year United Parcel Service Inc. launched a fulfillment service to help merchants manage sales from web storefronts and marketplaces including Amazon and Walmart Inc.
Rival FedEx Corp. unveiled a similar e-commerce offering in 2017. The company this year severed its shipping contracts with Amazon and said it is positioning itself instead as a likely carrier for Amazon rivals such as Target Corp. and Walmart and for consumer-goods makers going directly to shoppers.
“The way the war is going to evolve, it’s essentially going to be Amazon with their 150 fulfillment centers … against the Walmarts with 4,700 stores or the Targets with 1,800 stores or the Best Buys with 1,000 stores,” FedEx Chief Executive Fred Smith said in a September interview.
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